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). Growers often design their own mixes using compost and other organic amendments. Organic growers largely depend on compost to manage nutrient requirements of growing transplants. Incorporation of large proportions of compost in the growing medium is not

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The soft-bodied larvae of fungus gnats ( Bradysia spp.) reside in growing medium and require constant moisture for survival ( Ellisor, 1934 ). Moisture content is an essential factor responsible for the development and survival of insect stages

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; Harris et al., 1995 ; Wright and Chambers, 1994 ). The rove beetle, Dalotia coriaria (Kraatz) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae), is a commercially available predator of greenhouse insect pests, including fungus gnat larvae, that resides in the growing medium

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Marantaceae or arrowroot family and is a perennial evergreen herb ( Tran et al., 2013 ). Greenhouse production of peacock arrowroot and other ornamental plants requires a suitable growing medium, and peacock arrowroot grows best in an acidic growing medium or

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transplant production systems, beneficial microbial colonies may be slow to develop and could be stimulated by soil priming with carbon sources. Priming of the growing medium in this context is defined as improving its “readiness” to receive a selected crop

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-Mix 560 (The Scott's Company, Marysville, OH) than in either SB300 Universal Professional Growing Mix (Strong-Lite Horticulture Products, Pine Bluff, AK) or Sunshine LC1 Mix (Sungro Horticulture, Inc., Bellevue, WA) growing medium. Metro-Mix 560 consists

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Common liverwort (Marchantia polymorpha L.) is an increasingly troublesome weed in containerized plant production. Postemergence applications were made to try to eradicate established stands of liverwort. Treatments consisted of sprays of quinoclamine at 1× and 2× rates and oxadiazon at the highest label rate, broadcast applications of sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate at 1x and 3x rates and four granular herbicides (flumioxazin, oxadiazon, oxyfluorfen + pendimethalin, and prodiamine) applied at label rates. The granular herbicides were applied both alone and with the sodium carbonate peroxyhydrate treatments. Herbicides were applied to common liverwort growing on an 80% aged pine bark: 20% Sphagnum peat-based soilless growing medium contained in 10-cm diameter plastic pots located in a double-poly covered greenhouse. At 2 weeks after treatment (WAT), control was best (93% to 100%) for both quinoclamine and the 3× peroxyhydrate treatments, intermediate (68% to 83%) for the 1× peroxyhydrate treatments, and not significant for any of the preemergence herbicides used alone. At 4 WAT, slight regrowth was evident in plots in which the treatments had an initial effect and the 1x peroxyhydrate + flumioxazin was as effective as the 3× peroxyhydrate and the 2× quinoclamine treatments. At 6 WAT, control was excellent in the 3× peroxyhydrate and 1× peroxyhydrate + flumioxazin treatments. Control was less, but still evident, in the quinoclamine and other 1× peroxyhydrate treated plots. While none of the treatments had completely eradicated common liverwort in all replications at 10 WAT, control was still excellent to good in many of the peroxyhydrate + preemergence herbicide-treated plots.

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Abstract

One of the most important aspects of the physics of growing media in containers is the limited bulk volume of the medium (2,4). Bulk volume (BV) includes the volume of the medium solids and pore spaces (1). Despite the importance of BV in determining the amounts of air, water, and nutrients in the pot, BV is rarely specified in research articles involving plant growth in container media. Without BV, volumetric properties, such as bulk density (g/ml), container capacity (percent by volume), air-filled porosity (percent by volume) and fertilization and liming rates (kg/m3), cannot be converted to absolute amounts per pot. The purpose of this study was to develop equations to calculate BV using pot dimensions and medium height in the pot.

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; Gillespie and Menzies, 1993 ; Jarvis et al., 1993 ). Contact insecticides or insect growth regulators applied as a drench to the growing medium are commonly used by greenhouse producers to suppress fungus gnat larval populations ( Cloyd and Dickinson, 2006

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Increased consumer demand for poultry products has created a poultry waste disposal problem. Previous research demonstrated that a growing medium containing 50% composted broiler litter sustained plant growth as well as commercially available alternatives with no objectionable odor. The objective of this research was to determine consumer perceptions to develop a marketing strategy for this product. One-hundred eighty consumers participated in an intercept-survey. Consumers rated fertility of the growing medium as the most important attribute (4.0 on 5.0 scale), followed by mix price (3.8), and color (3.4). “Organic gardening” was important to 82% while the addition of organic material to a growing medium was important to only 56% of the sample. Adding cow manure to a growing medium was desirable to more consumers (65%) than adding horse (39%) or poultry manure (40%). A marketing strategy should include “organic” terminology rather than a specific manure incorporated to deemphasize the negative perception of composted broiler litter.

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