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Rachel Mack, James S. Owen, Alex X. Niemiera and Joyce Latimer

Management Practices Guide: Guide for Producing Nursery Crops ( Bilderback et al., 2013 ). Agriculture, including nursery and greenhouse operations, is considered a leading source of nonpoint source water pollution ( U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2005

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Christopher J. Currey and Roberto G. Lopez

Operations and Management. Students collected data on crop growth, media and irrigation water properties, greenhouse environments, and pests every week in 2011 [PU (n = 10)] and 2013 [ISU (n = 10), PU (n = 6)] or biweekly in 2015 [ISU (n = 11)]. At PU

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Gregory J. McKee, Frank G. Zalom and Rachael E. Goodhue

validation of fixed-precision sequential sampling plans for estimating population density Environ. Entomol. 24 261 270 Toscano, N. Zalom, F. 2003 Management of greenhouse whiteflies Strawberry News Bull California

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Rachel Mack, James S. Owen Jr., Alex X. Niemiera and David J. Sample

moisture, mode of application, and other considerations related to use Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Proc. 26 584 587 Mack, R. Owen, J.S. Jr Niemiera, A.X. Latimer, J.G. 2017 Virginia nursery and greenhouse grower survey of best management practices HortTechnology

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Danielle D. Treadwell, George J. Hochmuth, Robert C. Hochmuth, Eric H. Simonne, Lei L. Davis, Wanda L. Laughlin, Yuncong Li, Teresa Olczyk, Richard K. Sprenkel and Lance S. Osborne

literature on organic and conventional basil production that could be applied to nutrient management in organic greenhouse basil production. Production methods used in greenhouse herb production Planting and harvesting. Organic producers are required to use

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Lois Berg Stack

Information presented in greenhouse management courses has changed in response to several factors. Increasingly, students must learn about:

  1. new technologies such as the use of computers in crop management, and new techniques such as implementation of biological pest management;
  2. regulations like the EPA/OSHA chemical safety laws;
  3. experimental procedures, to be able to assess future technologies and techniques during their careers; and
  4. professionalism (industry leadership, ability to work with the media, knowledge of how to impact law).

Changes in course content and procedures over time, and methods of teaching increased types and amounts of information, are discussed through results of a survey of current instructors of greenhouse management courses.

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Joshua K. Craver and Kimberly A. Williams

increasingly important topic for many greenhouse production courses. Nutrient management in hydroponic production systems is more intensive than a typical production scenario because the grower must more closely manage all macro- and micronutrients for the crop

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Michael R. Evans, Todd J. Cavins, Jeff S. Kuehny, Richard L. Harkess and Greer R. Lane

Economics and logistics have greatly reduced or eliminated the ability of horticulture instructors to use field trips or on-site visits as educational tools. This is especially problematic in the field of greenhouse management and controlled environment agriculture, since the facilities and technologies used are essential to the discipline. To address this problem, we developed 15 DVD-based virtual field trips (VFT's) that instructors may use to demonstrate to students the most up-to-date facilities, technologies, and management strategies used in greenhouse management (ornamental and food crops) and controlled environment agriculture (GCEA). Each VFT included a preface with background information about the company, a tour organized by subject chapters, self-examination, and a teacher's guide with additional information and case studies. Each land-grant institution with an instructional program in greenhouse management of controlled-environment agriculture will be provided a free copy of each VFT, which will benefit all instructors of GCEA in the United States.

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Michael A. Schnelle and Sharon L. von Broembsen

A pilot IPM program has been implemented for the commercial greenhouse industry in Oklahoma. Key growers and cooperative extension agents have formed working IPM teams across the state. After administering a pretest to establish an educational baseline, IPM workshops have been presented to growers and agents. By use of these specialist-mediated workshops key growers have received sufficient training to implement a multi-phase IPM program. Establishment of proper cultural and management practices has occurred within the first six months of training. As a result, advanced growers are now implementing basic IPM practices and are anticipating the use of biological controls within this year. Due to the success of the pilot program, workshops will be offered statewide next year. Extension IPM bulletins are being written to facilitate the comprehensive effort. This pilot program should serve as a model and impetus for extension specialists and greenhouse grower organizations in other states to incorporate IPM strategies in their production and management practices.

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Stephanie Burnett and Donglin Zhang

In the past, horticulture students at the University of Maine have been taught to irrigate plants using only hand irrigation. It is becoming increasingly important to irrigate and fertilize efficiently in commercial greenhouses in order to reduce water waste and nutrient leaching. In 2004 and 2006, greenhouse management or plant production students were exposed to alternate methods of irrigating Dendranthema ×morifolium (chrysanthemum) in greenhouses to train students more effectively in irrigation techniques. In 2004, students measured the quantity of water applied to chrysanthemums once they reached the permanent wilting point from 26 Sept. until 30 Oct. The irrigation frequency generally increased as crops grew, but, the quantity of water applied upon irrigation was not significantly different. This experience provided students with a tangible idea of how irrigation frequency and timing change as crops grow, which could be applied to irrigation timing decisions in the future. In 2006, students grew a crop of chrysanthemums using alternate methods of irrigation (hand watering vs. drip irrigation) and fertilization. Student surveys in 2006 indicated that only 25% of students with previous experience working in a greenhouse or nursery had grown crops using drip irrigation, but all students with prior experience had irrigated by hand. Expanding student experiences with irrigation in the greenhouse uses active learning to instill students with more knowledge of irrigation and provide them with practical skills for irrigating efficiently and conservatively in the future.