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Recycling of irrigation water in commercial greenhouses is implemented as a strategy to minimize water and pesticide or fertilizer runoff from contaminating the environment ( Hong and Moorman, 2005 ; Hu et al., 2008 ). However, recycling water

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place outside the natural season, which is the reason why the surface area of greenhouse crops has increased. The Mediterranean region houses 135,000 ha of horticultural species grown under plastic. The surface of greenhouse-covered areas is ≈27,700 ha

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production systems in Turkey, no definitive studies on the division of labor between women and men on Turkish vegetable greenhouses have been published. Vegetables produced in greenhouses (glass or plastic) are cash crops in Turkey, the major greenhouse

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low labor costs for export to Europe and North America ( Drotleff, 2014 ). The production process in propagation greenhouses in Europe and North America includes inspecting and organizing unrooted cuttings (typically received from offshore locations

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lowering the risk of contracting some diseases in humans ( Al-Amri, 2013 ). Recently, large areas of China traditionally used for cereal cultivation have been transferred to intensive greenhouse cultivation due to rapid economic development in this

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The greenhouse, nursery, and sod (GNS) sector in the United States accounted for $10 billion in gross sales or 5% of gross farm receipts, in 1998. Despite its significant economic contributions, the sector receives little attention from policymakers. Part of the problem lies in the absence of empirical economic analysis that addresses the impact of the sector on the U.S. economy. The absence of such analysis places the sector at a disadvantage when agricultural policies are designed to address agricultural imbalances, such as farm income problems, and hinders the ability of the sector to lobby for policies favorable to GNS producers. This study provides estimates of the economic impacts of the GNS sector on the U.S. economy and quantifies the linkages between the GNS sector and other economic sectors. The results show that the sector contributed over $26 billion and $17 billion in output and value added economic activity, respectively, and over 438,000 jobs.

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increasing sophistication of controlled-environment agriculture facilitates atmospheric environmental regulation ( Katsoulas et al., 2001 ). Because VPD is an indicator of the atmospheric driving force for water movement, greenhouse operations are moving

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Single-span plastic greenhouses and solar greenhouses are frequently employed in protected horticulture in developing countries due to their simplicity and low cost. In China, the area of single-span plastic greenhouse and solar greenhouse is 4

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increasing. In 2005, organic nursery and greenhouse production covered 3331 acres (1348.0 ha) in the United States. It is unknown how much of this acreage was dedicated to ornamental plant production, but conventional greenhouse and nursery production

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82 POSTER SESSION 12 Greenhouse Management/Cross-Commodity

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