Trichoderma aggressivum f. aggressivum ( T.a.f.a .) and T. aggressivum f. europeanum ( T.a.f.e .) cause green mold disease in the cultivated mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus ) in North America and Europe, respectively. T.a.f.a . and T
Mirosława Staniaszek, Katarzyna Szajko, Zbigniew Uliński, Magdalena Szczech and Waldemar Marczewski
Kenneth R. Summy and Christopher R. Little
spot disease ( g ; arrow); muskmelon leaves: low ( h ) and high ( i ; arrow) levels of powdery mildew disease. In addition to sooty mold accumulation, there are a myriad of fungal leaf spots that occur on glasshouse plant foliage and it would be
Xiao-Juan Wei, Xiao-Jing Liang, Jin-Lin Ma, Kai-Xiang Li and Haiying Liang
elongate three times yearly in the first 2 years, with an average of increment of 15.9 cm, whereas adult trees flush once a year. Its primary diseases include sooty mold, shoot tip blight, and leaf tip blight. Tea green leafhoppers ( J. formosana ) and tea
Krista C. Shellie
Green mold, a predominant disease of citrus fruit, develops when spores of Penicillium digitatum infect extant wounds in fruit epidermal tissue. Development of green mold during shipping limits the distance grapefruit can be surface transported. The objective of this research was to evaluate whether altering the atmosphere during refrigerated storage could suppress development of green mold. In the first two experiments, growth of green mold was evaluated after fruit were stored in ultra-low oxygen (0.05 or 1 kPa) at 14, 16, or 18 °C for up to 21 days. In the last two experiments, grapefruit were stored for 14 or 21 d at 12, 13, or 14 °C in atmospheres containing 2, 5, or 10 kPa oxygen with or without 2, 5, 10, or 20 kPa carbon dioxide. In all experiments, grapefruit were inoculated with 10 or 20 μL of a spore suspension of P. digitatum. Decay progression after storage was monitored by measuring the diameter of the lesion in cm at the demarcated site of inoculation or by subjectively rating percent decayed fruit surface area. Grapefruit not inoculated with P. digitatum had no visible symptoms of green mold. Grapefruit stored under controlled atmosphere had less fruit surface covered with mycelium (5% to 64%) than grapefruit stored in air. Inoculated grapefruit stored in 0.05 kPa oxygen for up to 14 d at 14 or 18 °C had no visible symptoms of green mold upon removal from cold storage, but developed a characteristic green mold lesion after 5 additional days of storage in air at ambient temperature. Results suggest that refrigerated controlled-atmosphere storage combined with wax and a fungicide can enhance control of green mold during shipping.
J.S. Parham and J.L. Smilanick
Pseudomonas cepacia LT412W reduced green mold on lemons caused by Penicillium digitatum. It produces phenylpyrrole antibiotics which cause inhibition zones in co-culture with the pathogen. Their role in control of the disease was investigated. Mutagenesis of P. cepacia (rifampicin resistant) was performed by mating it with E. coli S-17 pSUP1021 (kanamycin resistant), which carries the transposon Tn5. Transconjugate selection and screening for absence of inhibition zones identified a stable mutant. Growth of parent and mutant were comparable. When the mutant was co-cultured with the pathogen on lemon albedo agar, no inhibition zone appeared. Similar co-culture on potato dextrose agar with tryptophan (0.05 g/L), a precursor of phenylpyrroles, did not induce inhibition zones. This suggests the mutation is not in tryptophan biosynthesis. Parent and mutant were assayed for phenylpyrroles. They were cultured in nutrient broth, centrifuged, and the cells extracted with acetone. The extract was dried and dissolved in chloroform. It was spotted on nano-SIL Cl8 TLC plates, run one hour (methanol:acetonitrile:water, 1:1:1), dried, developed with sulfanilic acid, and observed under UV light. The relative mobility of spots from extracts of the parent matched phenylpyrroles, whereas the mutant produced none. Control of decay by the mutant and parent were equal, suggesting no role for phenylpyrroles in suppression of the disease.
C. Stevens, V.A. Khan, J.Y. Lu, C.L. Wilson, P.L. Pusey, M.K. Kabwel, Y. Mafolo, J. Liul, E. Chalutz and S. Droby
Applying low doses of ultraviolet light (254 nm, W-C) reduces the incidence of brown rot of (Monilinia fructicola) peaches, green mold (Penicillium digitatum) of tangerines, and Rhizopus soft rot (Rhizopus stolonifer) of tomatoes and sweetpotatoes resulting from field infection and artificial inoculation. In most studies, applying postharvest fungicide (PF) was better than W-C treatment. In this study, the effectiveness of combining a biocontrol agent, Debaryomyces hansenii (BC), with low UV-C dose for postharvest disease control was investigated. When these commodities were treated with BC 3 days after W-C treatment, the reduction of storage rots was more effective than when UV-C was used alone. For example, the percent brown rot infection of artificially inoculated Elberta peaches 36 hours after inoculation of the nontreated control, peaches treated with UV-C, BC, W-C + BC, and benlate were 100%, 55%, 67%, 12%, and 12%, respectively. The efficacy of W-C + BC was similar to when PF was used alone, indicating that an integration of UV-C treatment and BC can reduce storage rot to the levels of commercial PF treatment.
Julien Mercier, Mebarek Baka, Baskhara Reddy, Ronan Corcuff and Joseph Arul
Shortwave ultraviolet radiation (UV-C) was tested for controlling natural infections and inducing resistance to fungal decay caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers.: Fr. (gray mold rot) in bell pepper [Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum (Grossum Group)] fruit. All UV-C doses tested (0.22, 0.44, 0.88, or 2.20 kJ·m-2) caused a reduction in the number of natural infections occurring during storage at 13 °C. A UV-C dose of 0.88 kJ·m-2 controlled most effectively natural infections in peppers stored at both 13 or 20 °C. Although UV-C was found to be highly germicidal to B. cinerea conidia exposed on agar or on fruit wounds, it did not prevent infection of fruit inoculated with the pathogen 24 hours before exposure to UV-C. However, fruit which were exposed to UV-C 24 hours before inoculation with B. cinerea had a lower percentage of infections. For this reason, UV-C appears to act mainly as an inducer of disease resistance in this crop rather than a sanitizing agent. UV-C was effective in inducing resistance to B. cinerea in fruit at various stages of maturity, from green to red. Disease resistance was also induced in fruit which had been stored for 7 days before UV-C treatment. The effect of UV-C doses was found to be additive as two successive exposures at 0.44 kJ·m-2 had an equivalent effect as one exposure to the optimal dose of 0.88 kJ·m-2. However, two successive exposures to 0.88 kJ·m-2 were less effective than one exposure to this dose.
Michelle A. Grabowski and Dean K. Malvick
annual bedding plant varieties with no reported susceptibility to white mold for potential resistance to this disease. Materials and Methods Isolate preparation Three isolates of S. sclerotiorum from diverse hosts were arbitrarily chosen for this study
Yuee Tian, Zhiping Che, Di Sun, Yuanyuan Yang, Xiaomin Lin, Shengming Liu, Xiaoyu Liu and Jie Gao
present, more than 20 kinds of fungal diseases of peony have been reported, of which gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is an increasingly severe disease with a high frequency of occurrence ( Yang et al., 2017 ). The pathogen can cause necrotic leaves
Michelle A. Grabowski and Dean K. Malvick
. Garden managers are left with unsightly patches of dead plants or bare soil. Identifying ornamental plants with resistance to white mold would allow growers to avoid disease problems in beds known to be infested with S. sclerotiorum . Over 400 plant