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) found that higher rates of two different brassica green manure amendments suppressed R. solani more consistently than lower rates of application. Brassica soil amendment and green manure research on disease management on ornamental crops is limited

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A common, sustainable disease management tactic is the use of green manure cropping systems. The primary benefits of green manure crops are to: 1) protect the soil from erosion; 2) increase soil nutrients; 3) improve soil properties (e.g., water

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Spring seeding of green manure cover crops expands the opportunity for their use in northern climates where there are limited opportunities to plant covers in the fall before snowfall. In regions characterized by cooler climates, cash crops

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strategy to meet fertility needs and improve soil quality in high tunnels without the negative soil quality impacts that could result from animal manures is the use of green manures. Green manure fertility sources include cover crops that are tilled under

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, C. Antichi, D. Bàrberi, P. Montemurro, F. Tittarelli, F. 2010 Interactions between green manure and amendment type and rate: Effects on organic potato and soil mineral N dynamic J. Food Agr. Environ. 8 537 543 Canali, S. Di Bartolomeo, E. Tittarelli

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[PAN (ammonium + nitrate)] mineralized from green manure (GrM) crops (alfalfa, pea, and rye) over time in incubation study (PAN mineralized from non-amended, non-cropped soil was subtracted from PAN from each treatments at each date). se bars

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Sunn-hemp, Crotalaria juncea L. cv. Tropic Sun was developed in Hawaii in 1982 and recently introduced to the island of Guam by USDA Soil Conservation Service as a potential green manure crop. An evaluation of various legumes at three different soil regimes revealed that sunn-hemp produced greater biomass than other plants. In the study of the effects of sunn-hemp in subsequent vegetable production, slightly greater canopy was observed for potato, Solanum tuberosum cv. Kennebec, with green manuring with sunn-hemp than without. Yield of head cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capita cv. KK Cross, was higher with green manuring (1085.5g/head) than without (725.4g/plant). Competition between indigenous rhizobia and introduced inoculant seems to exist at some locations. Major constraints in using sunn-hemp as green manure on the island are its limited seed sources and requirements of additional labor. Education and promotion of using this legume in a long term soil-improving system is needed.

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Two Brassicaceae (Iberis amara L. selection ISCI14 and Rapistrum rugosum All. selection ISCI4) and a Capparidacea (Cleome hassleriana L. selection ISCI2) possessing glucosinolates whose degradation products exhibit high fungitoxic activity in vitro were assayed as biocidal plants in a green manure simulation. The trials were carried out in pots, using aboveground fresh plant tissues incorporated at a realistic field rate into soil naturally infected by Pythium sp. The effect of these plant tissues on total fungal populations and Pythium sp. were compared with Crambe abyssinica H. cv. Mario, a Brassicacea containing glucosinolates whose degradation products exhibit low fungitoxic activity in vitro, and a plant (Helianthus annuus L.) not containing glucosinolates. All green manure treatments induced increases in total fungi over a 10-week period, showing an enhanced microflora level compared with untreated soil. Pythium sp. was strongly suppressed by the C. hassleriana, I. amara, and R. rugosum selections, while sunflower and crambe treatments increased Pythium sp. in a manner similar to that observed for total fungal population. These findings indicate that the green manures assayed suppress Pythium sp. and also induced an increase in total soil microbial activity.

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Strawberry (Fragaria × Anaassa cv. Tribute) plants were planted in 15 cm standard pots filled with overburden soils from three West Virginia surface mine sites. Initial pH levels were 6.5, 4.4, and 3.6. Prior to planting pH levels were adjusted with CaCO3 to 6.5-6.7 in each soil. Each soil was amended by mixing in 60.85 g/pot (62.5 dry kg/ha) of sewage sludge, Sudan-sorghum hybrid green manure crop, hardwood residues, or unamended. A dry fertilizer (.10-.045-,089, N-P-K) was also mixed into the soil at a rate of 0.5 g/pot (454 kg/ha). Plants were grown from 3-6 to 10-16, 1992, on which date harvests and measurements were performed. The sludge treatments significantly increased fresh and dry weight accumulation, number of leaves, leaf area, and number of runners per plant above that of the control plants. The hardwood residues amendment delayed first date of ripe fruit and decreased average fruit fresh weight in one of the soils. Hardwood residues also decreased leaf number in another soil. The pH levels were raised to 6.8-7.3 by the sludge in all soils and remained at or near these values during the growing period.

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Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] was grown as a green manure preceding a fall crop of broccoli [Brassica oleracea L. (Italica Group)] in 1992 and 1993. Urea was used to supply 0, 84, or 168 kg·ha-1 of supplemental nitrogen (N) to broccoli which followed cowpeas. Control broccoli plots were grown on fallowed ground and were supplied with 168 kg·ha-1 of N from urea. Cowpea incorporation added over 100 kg·ha-1 of N to the soil in both years. In 1992, treatments had no significant effect on yield of marketable broccoli heads, but average head weight was reduced in the absence of external N. In 1993, broccoli yield was reduced following cowpeas except when 168 kg·ha-1 of external N also was supplied. Broccoli which followed cowpeas was delayed in maturity by 5 to 9 days in 1993. We conclude that a preceding cowpea crop alone will not supply enough N to sustain acceptable broccoli production. Further studies will determine how much external N must be supplied when broccoli follows cowpeas, and the best timing for supplying external N. We also will Investigate possible detrimental effects of the preceding cowpea crop on the broccoli.

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