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inhibit mycelial growth and to avoid enhancing postharvest mold problems. Botrytis cinerea causes the postharvest disease known as gray mold and is considered one of the most important diseases of stored pears. Wounds or injuries are the primary

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present, more than 20 kinds of fungal diseases of peony have been reported, of which gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is an increasingly severe disease with a high frequency of occurrence ( Yang et al., 2017 ). The pathogen can cause necrotic leaves

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extra labor to remove senescing leaves to avoid gray mold and botrytis blight caused by Botrytis cinerea ( Elad et al., 2007 ; Faust et al., 2011 ). The expected loss incurred due to gray mold is likely close to 10% ( Hausbeck, 1990 ), which does not

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Inheritance of field reactions to three fruit rots of strawberry was studied in two complete diallele crosses between parents of varying rot susceptibility. Reaction to any of the three rots--gray mold, leather rot, and anthracnose--demonstrated a 0.61 to 0.67 correlation with reaction to total rots. Phenotypic and environmental correlations between incidences of the three rots were negligible, while a 0.43 genetic correlation was found for reactions to gray mold and leather rot. Overall broadsense heritabilities for rot reactions of individual progenies of crosses were 0.16 for gray mold, 0.51 for anthracnose, 0.27 for leather rot, and 0.39 for total rots. Analysis of general and specific combining abilities in both dialleles indicates mostly additive gene action for reaction to gray mold, leather rot and total rots, with strong non-additive gene action for reaction to anthracnose.

`Earliglow' as a parent significantly reduced gray mold incidence in its progeny by 7.6 and 5.0 percentage points in the two dialleles, and significantly reduced total rot by 12.9 and 6.8 percentage points. `Fairfax' as a parent significantly increased gray mold in its progeny by 3.2 percentage points, increased leather rot by 4.5 percentage points, and increased total rot by 8.7 percentage points.

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Strawberries (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. `Tudla') were inoculated with gray mold conidia (Botrytis cinerea Pers.) and were subjected to postharvest heat treatment by dipping in water at various temperatures for 15 min. Heat treatment delayed Botrytis proliferation, but using dips at ≥48C caused fruit to soften and develop an atypical pink pigmentation. Fruit treated at 44 or 46C showed the best retention of firmness and maintained initial quality, developing neither an off-color nor an off-flavor.

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The increased demand for organic and sustainably grown produce has resulted in a demand for information on organic and biorational fungicides. The efficacy of these fungicides is often not established, yet they are aggressively advertised. In 2005 the efficacy of six organic and biorational fungicides and two controls were evaluated on field-grown red raspberries (Rubus idaeus `Prelude' and `Nova') for gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) management. Phytotoxicity of the fungicide treatments was evaluated on a weekly basis following each fungicide application. Fruit was harvested by hand, sorted into marketable and unmarketable categories and weighed. Subsamples of fruit were evaluated for postharvest disease development. Data analysis showed `Nova' was more susceptible to phytotoxicity than `Prelude'. The application of Phostrol resulted in the highest phytotoxicity rating when compared to all other fungicide treatments. The water spray control, standard fungicide (Captan/Elevate rotation) control, Endorse, and Lime Sulfur treatments resulted in negligible phytotoxity ratings. Applying Milstop, Milstop + Oxidate, and Oxidate + Vigor Cal Phos resulted in similar intermediate phytotoxicity ratings. Differences in marketable yield were nonexistent for the two cultivars and eight fungicide treatments. The predominant diseases observed in the postharvest evaluations were gray mold, blue mold (Penicillium sp.), and rhizopus soft rot (Rhizopus sp.) and/or mucor mold (Mucor sp.). This evaluation will be repeated in 2006.

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Abstract

Development of gray mold rot, caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr., in strawberry fruits during expedited cross-country truck transport and marketing periods of ca. 7 days at 5°C resulted mostly from preharvest infections. Postharvest infections occurred occasionally when healthy fruits were appressed against the lesion of a diseased fruit. Under the same conditions, postharvest conidial inoculations failed to produce visible lesions unless massive inoculum was used. Improved quality control at harvest, prompt cooling, and reduction of transit temperatures appeared to offer opportunities for disease reduction.

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Due to the declining availability of fungicides for use in commercial tomato production, there is a need to investigate alternative disease control methods. Several theories of disease resistance are associated with an increase in plant tissue calcium content, which has increased resistance of tomato seedlings to bacterial wilt and other diseases. Three tomato cultivars (`Mountain Supreme', `Sunrise', and `Celebrity') were grown in a greenhouse hydroponic system to study the role of Ca in reducing decay of fruit by Botrytis cinerea. Calcium treatments of 20, 200, or 1000 ppm were applied in a modified Hoagland's solution. A 3 × 3 factorial randomized complete-block design was used. Mature whole leaves were collected from immediately below the third flower clusters and the calcium content analyzed by inductively coupled plasma emission spectrophotometry. Harvested fruit were inoculated with a 5 × 105 spore/ml conidial suspension of B. cinerea and the decay lesion diameter measured once daily for 7 days. This was repeated for 8 consecutive weeks. Leaf Ca content significantly increased (P < 0.01) as the Ca treatments increased from low to medium (310%) and from medium to high (150%). The medium and high Ca treatments significantly reduced the area of decay caused by gray mold rot (P < 0.01). There were no differences in Ca content or decay among cultivars, and the Ca × cultivar interaction was not significant. It appears that leaf Ca content is negatively associated with resistance of greenhouse-grown tomatoes to gray mold rot, strengthening the hypothesized role of calcium in promoting disease resistance.

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Abstract

Benomyl and thiabendazole (TBZ), at concn of 1,000 ppm, were compatible with commercial scald inhibitors (2,700 ppm ethoxyquin or 2,000 ppm diphenylamine). No injury was observed on ‘ Delicious’ or ‘Stayman’ apples given combined treatments and stored 5 months at 0°C plus 6 or 7 days at 21°C. Effectiveness of fungicide and scald inhibitor was not altered when combined.

Both benomyl and TBZ used as 10-15 sec dip treatments at 500 ppm controlled decay due to blue mold (Penicillium expansum) and gray mold (Botrytis cinerea) at puncture wounds in inoculated apples. They were less effective in controlling decay at bruises unless suspensions were heated in a range of 29°-45°C (84°-l 13°F) and used as a 2-min dip. Unheated benomyl was more effective than unheated TBZ in reducing blue mold at bruises. TBZ was less effective in controlling decay at punctures when treatment was delayed 24 hr after inoculation. TBZ added to water contaminated with blue mold spores, as in a dump tank, controlled decay at skin punctures but not at bruises during subsequent storage. Neither benomyl nor TBZ controlled Alternaria rot, which often developed at punctures when blue and gray mold rot were controlled.

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in China and they have also been cultivated extensively in the United States, France, the Netherlands, and more ( Zhao and Tao, 2011 ). However, gray mold invariably occurs on herbaceous peony plants, especially when grown in the greenhouse ( Yang et

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