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concentrations of muscadine grapes and to develop a postharvest evaluation protocol for Arkansas muscadine genotypes for potential commercial use. Materials and Methods Vines of nine muscadine genotypes used for the study were grown at the University of Arkansas

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Immature grape embryos from early ripening genotypes of Vitis vinifera were successfully cultured in vitro on Difco orchid agar or a modified White's agar medium. Germination was increased in vitro for five genotypes from 0%, 7%, 11%, 12%, and 16% in vivo to 15%, 24%, 23%, 34%, and 24%, respectively. Subculturing embryos onto liquid culture from seeds that failed to germinate on agar also was possible. Differences in germination rates, as affected by pollen, were significant. This method will allow accelerated development of early ripening cultivars by allowing breeders to use such genotypes as females, as well as males.

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Four interspecific grape hybrids (Vitis spp.) developed in Arkansas were evaluated for primary bud hardiness by differential thermal analysis. Buds from two locations were analyzed over 2 years for acclimation, midwinter hardiness, and deacclimation. In addition, effects of two training systems on cold hardiness of buds were evaluated in one location. The buds of the two genotypes with the greatest component of V. vinifera in their ancestry acclimated more slowly than did the other genotypes. Ultimate midwinter bud hardiness was greater in the genotypes possessing less V. vinifera than other parentage. No effect on cold hardiness due to training system was noted. No natural winter freeze damage was observed on any of the genotypes in the period of observation.

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Abstract

The in vitro shoot proliferation responses of 4 Vitis genotypes in the presence of 3 cytokinins was examined. All genotypes grew best in media containing 6-benzyladenine (BA), but the concentration response was variable. Kinetin had no effect upon the 2 interspecific hybrid cultivars but evoked a slight response with 2 genotypes of V. labrusca and V. labruscana. Adenine sulfate had no effect alone; however, when combined with BA, it decreased the rate of shoot proliferation. Addition of the auxin picloram (PIC; 0.1–2.5 μm) to BA-containing (5.0–10.0 μm) medium reduced the rate of shoot proliferation. Using low concentrations of PIC combined with 0.0 or 1.0 μm BA, there was a small increase in shoot tip multiplication. Callus growth was rapid in the presence of 5–10 μm BA and 1–2.5 μm PIC. In summation, the rate of shoot proliferation in grape shoot tip cultures is governed to a large extent by the interaction of cytokinins and genotypes.

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of grapes (μg·g −1 FW). Identification of MybA-related genotype at the color locus. Many studies have shown that MybA-related genes regulate anthocyanin biosynthesis in grape. MybA-related genes VvmybA1 , VvmybA2 , VvmybA3 , VlmybA1-2 , VlmybA1

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. Cizhongjiaotang from Yunnan Province is an ancient grape cultivar that has been cultivated in churches built by French missionaries in Yunnan. Furthermore, Cizhongjiaotang shares the same genotype with Baco noir which originated from France, so we speculated that

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-market muscadine grapes at harvest. Materials and Methods Plants and culture Six muscadine genotypes (AM-9, AM-74, AM-83, ‘Nesbitt’, ‘Ison’, and ‘Summit’) were harvested from vines grown at the University of Arkansas Fruit Research Station, Clarksville, AR [west

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°C with 85% to 95% relative humidity (RH) ( Silva et al., 1994 ; Takeda et al., 1983 ; Walker et al., 2001 ). Muscadine grapes have one of the highest nutraceutical levels among fruit crops, but levels vary among genotypes ( Greenspan et al., 2005

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in the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) grape germplasm collection, in Winters, CA, USA. As this collection was genotyped with single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers previously ( Myles et al. 2011 ), our Eutypa-dieback phenotypes contribute

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genotyping and mapping Mol. Breed. 282 241 254 Husmann, G. Dearing, C. 1913 The muscadine grapes. U.S. Dept. Agr. Bul. 273 Husmann, G. Dearing, C. 1916 Muscadine grapes. U.S. Dept. Agr. Farmer’s Bul. 709 Ingrouille, M.J. Chase, M.W. Fay, M.F. Bowman, D. Van

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