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deficiency due to a calcareous layer in the root zone, and winterkill contributed to the demise of poor-performing cultivars (A.E. Stewart, E.J. Gregory, and J.M. Jordon, unpublished data). Poor adaptability of European wine grape cultivars compared with

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Introduction of the grape phylloxera (Phylloxera vitifoliae Fitch) into the vinifera grape growing areas of the world over 100 years ago forced viticulturalists to use resistant rootstocks from central North America. This aphid destroyed more than 2,500,000 acres of vineyards in France alone only 25 years after it was introduced. Control measures other than resistant rootstocks were inadequate for phylloxera. Extensive rootstock development programs have been underway for over 100 years. The North American species, which are generally the most resistant, were studied for their adaptability to soil climate, compatability with vinifera scions, and propagation characteristics. The presently-used rootstocks originated from these studies and breeding programs. The primary objectives of the earlier workers were phylloxera resistance, tolerance to lime induced chlorosis, ease of rooting and grafting, and desirable effect on the yield and quality of scion cultivars. More recently root knot nematode resistance was incorporated in rootstocks (19, 23, 24).

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; Fallahi et al., 2001 ). Table grapes are one of the most important alternative fruit crops for many regions and even at a small scale would fit perfectly in the operation of any wine grape and tree fruit grower in the Intermountain West region, which

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adaptable to growth conditions in Korea. In Korea, most seedless grapes are currently produced by applying plant growth regulators twice, using seeded grape cultivars such as Kyoho and Shine Muscat. Because this method is time-consuming and labor intensive

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). As a result, we have finally developed a triploid seedless grape cultivar, Black Star—an early-maturing cultivar with excellent quality and adaptability to relatively unfavorable environments during cultivation. Origin One of the main problems

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. Origin ‘Mountain Magic’ is the F 1 hybrid of NC 2 CELBR × NC 2 Grape ( Fig. 1 ). NC 2 CELBR is a large-fruited, determinate tomato breeding line, which combines moderate resistance to early blight with a high level of late blight resistance based on the

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‘Thomcord’ ( Vitis vinifera L. × V. labrusca L.) is a midseason, blue–black seedless table grape ( Fig. 1 ) that is suitable for farmers' markets and shipping to domestic markets. It has the aromatic flavor reminiscent of ‘Concord’ with firmer

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.E. Harkness E.M. Proc. Fourth Intl. Symp. Cool Climate Viticult. Enol 1620 July 1996 Rochester, NY Communication Services, New York State Agr. Expt. Sta Geneva, NY Fisher, K.H. Piott, B. Barkovic, J. 1996a Adaptability of labrusca and French hybrid grape

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diseases. Its planting has increased in vineyards in the Czech Republic under organic viticulture conditions. It is well-adaptable to a wide range of growing conditions. The cultivar was named ‘Cerason’ because of its taste and aroma qualities, which are

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energy as HPS lighting. Weed Control in Organic Vineyards The efficacy of two mechanical weed control methods (plow and a cultivator), steam, and an organic herbicide were compared in organic raisin and wine grape vineyards (Shrestha et al., p. 99

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