allocate resources efficiently and provide relevant best management practices.
Since 2006, comprehensive documentation of land-use characteristics on US golfcourses has occurred twice via surveys conducted by the GolfCourse Superintendents Association
1 Former Graduate Research Assistant. 2 Associate Professor.
Contribution no. 97-474-J of the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station. Thanks are extended to Cliff Dipman, golfcourse superintendent at the Manhattan Country Club, Manhattan
An estimated 14,145 golf facilities exist in the United States totaling ∼1 million irrigated acres of turfgrass ( Shaddox et al. 2022 ). Golfcourses contribute ∼$21 billion in output impact to the US economy ( Haydu et al. 2018 ). The performance
acres. Generally, the average rates of N, P 2 O 5 , and K 2 O were greater on putting greens than on any other course feature. The most common factors that golf facilities used to determine their decisions about applying nutrients were visual
Golfcourse superintendents are often under pres4ure to maintain high-quality turf under climatic, pest, and use-induced stresses ( Rossi, 2006 ). Such demand entails the use of water and chemical inputs such as fertilizer, pesticides, wetting
, TPI provided funding and an economic impact study of the U.S. turfgrass industry was undertaken covering five major sectors: sod farms, lawncare services, lawn and garden retail stores, lawn equipment manufacturing, and golfcourses ( Haydu et al
wastewater (recycled water) for landscape irrigation. Golfcourses are the leading urban landscape users of recycled water. The total area of golfcourses in the United States was 608,732 ha in 2007. It is estimated that during 2003 to 2005, 80% of maintained
Many golfcourses in the southwestern United States are transitioning to reuse water for irrigation purposes. In Las Vegas, NV, 30 of 53 golfcourses now irrigate with reuse water. As communities grow in size, the amount of reuse water generated
The environmental impact of golfcourses has been studied increasingly in recent years. King et al. (2007) studied storm runoff from a golfcourse in Texas and found that although nitrogen concentrations in runoff were not a concern, phosphorus
Based on a national survey, golfcourses in the United States used 2.3 million acre-ft of irrigation water per year during 2004–05, with 12% of all golf facilities using recycled water as one of the water sources ( Throssell et al., 2009 ). Recycled