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Hongfei Jiang, Jack D. Fry and Steve C. Wiest

1 Former Graduate Research Assistant. 2 Associate Professor. Contribution no. 97-474-J of the Kansas Agricultural Experiment Station. Thanks are extended to Cliff Dipman, golf course superintendent at the Manhattan Country Club, Manhattan

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Travis Wayne Shaddox and Joseph Bryan Unruh

Wetting agents are commonly used on golf course bermudagrass ( Cynodon sp.) putting greens to manage soil moisture. Turfgrass quality on putting greens can be restricted if hydrophobic conditions arise, and wetting agents have been used to

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John J. Haydu, Alan. W. Hodges and Charles R. Hall

, TPI provided funding and an economic impact study of the U.S. turfgrass industry was undertaken covering five major sectors: sod farms, lawncare services, lawn and garden retail stores, lawn equipment manufacturing, and golf courses ( Haydu et al

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Eric Watkins, Andrew B. Hollman and Brian P. Horgan

The environmental impact of golf courses has been studied increasingly in recent years. King et al. (2007) studied storm runoff from a golf course in Texas and found that although nitrogen concentrations in runoff were not a concern, phosphorus

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Huisen Zhu and Deying Li

Based on a national survey, golf courses in the United States used 2.3 million acre-ft of irrigation water per year during 2004–05, with 12% of all golf facilities using recycled water as one of the water sources ( Throssell et al., 2009 ). Recycled

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Yuhung Lin and Yaling Qian

wastewater (recycled water) for landscape irrigation. Golf courses are the leading urban landscape users of recycled water. The total area of golf courses in the United States was 608,732 ha in 2007. It is estimated that during 2003 to 2005, 80% of maintained

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Robert L. Green, Laosheng Wu and Grant J. Klein

1 To whom reprint requests should be addressed. E-mail address: We thank Bert Spivey and Kent Davidson, golf course superintendents at Industry Hills Golf Courses, City of Industry, Calif

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Philip J. Brown, Lambert B. McCarty, Virgil L. Quisenberry, L. Ray Hubbard Jr. and M. Brad Addy

requirement for rapid drainage that allows play to resume after heavy rainfall means many modern sports fields and golf greens are constructed using sand-based root zones containing a large number of macropores. In USGA-style golf greens, the profile is 30 cm

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Keisha Rose-Harvey, Kevin J. McInnes and James C. Thomas

Golf putting greens and sports fields that are designed to use a geotextile to retain a sand-based root zone mixture atop a drainage layer are an alternative to the popular design recommended by the U.S. Golf Association (USGA) where the root zone

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Dale A. Devitt, Lena Wright, Daniel C. Bowman, Robert L. Morris and Michelle Lockett

Many golf courses in the southwestern United States are transitioning to reuse water for irrigation purposes. In Las Vegas, NV, 30 of 53 golf courses now irrigate with reuse water. As communities grow in size, the amount of reuse water generated