accumulation of several classes of secondary compounds (as reviewed by Memelink et al., 2001 ). Glucosinolates (GSLs) are a class of secondary metabolites present in members of the Brassicaceae family. GSLs are constitutively produced thioglycosidic
Broccoli (Brassica oleracea Italica Group) plants resistant or susceptible to clubroot (Plasmodiophora brassicae Wor. races 2 and 6) produced from 10 segregating breeding lines were analyzed for their composition of glucosinolates as determined in terms of their hydrolytic breakdown products: goitrin, volatile isothiocyanates, and thiocyanate ion. Unlike goitrin and volatile isothiocyanates, the average content of thiocyanate ion was significantly lower (548 μg·g-1 dry weight) in resistant plants than in susceptible ones (712 μg·g-1). Of 15 resistant plants derived from 10 breeding lines containing zero goitrin and/or relatively low concentrations of one or more glucosinolate products, 10 plants were free of goitrin, three were low in volatile isothiocyanates (≤100 μg·g-1), two were low in thiocyanate ion (≤200 μg·g-1), and two were low in total glucosinolates (≤600 μg·g-1).
Glucosinolates are secondary plant metabolites that occur naturally in Brassicaceae, a plant family that has given rise to important crops such as oilseeds ( Brassica napus ) and cabbages ( Brassica oleracea ). Based on the amino acid origin of
Intact roots of 109 radish (Raphanus sativus L.) cultivars were analyzed for glucosinolates (GS’s) and found to contain primarily 4-methylthio-3-butenyl-GS with small amounts of 4-methylsulfinylbutyl-, 4-methylsulfinyl-3-butenyl-, and 3-indolylmethyl-GS’s. Cultivars included oil radishes (ssp. oleifera) and food radishes (ssp. radicola) available in European, European-American, Japanese, and Korean markets. Regarding total GS’s, 80% or more of the red European-American radishes had 100-199 pmole/100 g, the Korean 100-299, and the Japanese 200-399. No correlation was found between root size and 4-methylthio-3-butenyl-, 3-indolylmethyl-, or total GS’s. Japanese radish peelings contained significantly greater concentrations of these 3 constituents than did the peeled root.
. Brassicaceous plants are also known for their production of the S-containing secondary plant metabolites, glucosinolates. Glucosinolate concentrations in plants can significantly alter an animal's health. High-glucosinolate diets initiate such undesirable
Glucosinolates are thioglucosides found in brassica vegetables that when hydrolyzed at the S-glucose bond create a suite of products involved in plant defense, flavor, and human health. Glucosinolates react with myrosinase [thioglucoside
Abbreviations: GS, glucosinolate; HPLC, high-performance liquid chromatography. 1 Dept. of Horticultural Science. 2 Dept. of Food Science. We gratefully acknowledge E.W. Underhill for performing the LC plasma spray mass spectrometry analysis and
650 nm, respectively ( Koski et al., 1951 ). Environmental factors such as temperature and irradiance levels can have strong influences on the accumulation of plant pigments and glucosinolates ( Antonious et al., 1996 ; Charron and Sams, 2004
products of some glucosinolates (GSs) ( Mithen et al., 2000 ). Some research about glucosinolates has been done in Brassica crops ( Carlson et al., 1987 ; Krumbein et al., 2005 ; Mullin and Sahasrabudhe, 1977 ; Rangkadilok et al., 2002 ; Rosa et al
Glucosinolates extracted from seeds of 2 rutabaga (Brassica napus L. Napobrassica group) and 2 turnip (B. rapa L. Rapifera group) cultivars, and also from roots sampled at 2-week intervals during growth and development on 2 soil types, were hydrolyzed and the individual volatile products identified by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Four isothiocyanates (3-butenyl-, 4-pentenyl-, 4-methylthiobutyl-, and 2-phenylethyl-isothiocyanates), and 2 nitriles (1-cyano-4-methylthiobutane and 2-phenylethylnitrile), were identified. Yields of each constituent varied considerably between cultivars, and also seasonally in root tissue, but generally were quantitatively similar in trend within cultivar grown on loam and organic soils; 2-phenylethyl-isothiocyanate was predominant in roots.