containing harvested fruits were weighed and the fruit weight was calculated by subtracting average weight of an empty tub from the weight of the tub containing fruit. The fruit that remained on the trees after mechanical harvest were hand-harvested (gleaned
Kelly T. Morgan, Smita Barkataky, Davie Kadyampakeni, Robert Ebel and Fritz Roka
W.P. Cowgill and R. VanVranken
Electronic discussion groups provide a forum in which to enhance the exchange of information between university researchers, extension agents and specialists, students, and their clientele; farmers, wholesalers/brokers, retailers and direct marketers as well as other colleagues in the same field. Three electronic discussion groups; Apple-Crop-Mg, Veg-Prod-Mg, and Direct-Mkt have been implemented and have been extremely effective in providing a unique forum for the sharing of knowledge. Over 400 subscribers are on-line with these groups from more than 30 states, four Canadian Provinces and three other countries. Participant surveys cite the ease of use, the timeliness of replies (often within 24 h), the ability to glean timely information for files and newsletters. These groups have been a valuable communication tool reaching a broad audience rapidly and cost effectively.
David L. Hensley
The Landscape Industry Council of Hawaii was formed in 1987 to bring the landscape professional and trade associations together. The organization's goals are communication between segments of the industry, education, promotion, and legislative action. Current members of the council include: Aloha Arborists Association; ASLA Hawaii Chapter; Hawaiian Association of Nurserymen; PGMS HI Chapter; Hawaii Landscape and Irrigation Contractors Association; HI Professional Gardeners Association; HI Turfgrass Association; and the HI Island Landscape Association. The Council publishes Hawaii Landscape magazine, presents statewide educational programs and trade shows, and works for the common good of the entire green industry. It has been successful in gleaning grant support for several efforts. The Council is on the verge of broadening membership to individuals as well as associations and making significant strides to meet its goals and needs of the Hawaiian landscape industry. The evolution and successes have not been without problems, setbacks, ruffled feathers, and a lot of hard work from a dedicated group of volunteers.
Lelia S. Kelly*
State specialists and agents developed a Master Gardener training curriculum that consisted of a collection of powerpoint presentations in the year 2000. After three years of use this curriculum was in need of revision and updating. The revision process that utilized volunteers, agents, subject matter specialists as well as curriculum specialists will be presented. Suggestions for improvement were gleaned from three years of class evaluations. In addition to obvious updating of material, formatting the curriculum into a lesson plan with complete step-by-step instructions for teachers was required to enable the curriculum to be more easily taught by non-extension personnel such as Master Gardener Educators. Removal of all questionable copyrighted pictures, graphs, drawings, etc. from the original curriculum was accomplished. This process will allow Mississippi State to share this curriculum with other universities if requested without fear of legal repercussions. Aligning the student's training notebook to more accurately reflect the material presented in class was done also. Resource material lists were added and standardized tests for the new material were included. The incorporation of hands-on activities or demonstrations to more actively engage the student in the learning process was included as well. The entire revised training curriculum was contained on a compact disc that was made available to instructors.
Roger Kjelgren and Larry Rupp
As populations become increasingly urbanized, landscape water conservation becomes more important. Landscape water consumption can increase municipal water use up to 4-fold during the growing season, and account for half the total yearly water use. Landscape water conservation is important in decreasing peak summer water demand to reduce the strain on delivery systems, and to reduce total demand so that development of new sources can be forestalled. Potential water savings from existing landscapes can be estimated by comparing historical usage gleaned from water meter readings to plant water needs estimated from reference evapotranspiration. Estimating water needs for turf is straightforward because of the few species involved and the uniformity of turf landscapes. Estimating water needs of woody plants is more difficult because of the heterogeneity of woody plants and how they are used, and woody plants respond to evaporative demand differently than turfgrass. Many woody plants will actually use less water as reference evapotranspiration increases due to stomatal closure induced by high leaf-air vapor pressure gradients. Landscape water is then conserved by either applying water more effectively in scheduling when and how long to irrigate based on estimating water use again from reference evapotranspiration, or by replacing areas in turfgrass with plants more-adapted to the existing conditions. Encouraging water conservation by end users is the final and largest challenge. Automated irrigation systems makes wasting water easy, while conserving water takes more effort. Education is the key to successful landscape water conservation.
Richard W. Van Vranken and Winfred P. Cowgill Jr.
The rapid evolution of electronic technologies is providing researchers, educators, and consumers increasingly fast access to information. On the Internet (Net), electronic mail is a rapid, efficient, and economical medium for communication. Mail list management software (Listserv, Almanac, Majordomo, and Liststar) now allows users with interests in specific topics to address production and marketing issues across state and international boundaries by posting messages to a discussion group (DG) at one electronic address. Replies from anyone interested in responding may be sent to the entire DG, constituting a discussion, or returned directly to the originator of the message. Three commodity-oriented, horticultural DGs—Apple-Crop, Veg-Prod and Direct-Mkt—established over the last 30 months now provide on-line forums for >600 subscribers from 46 states, 4 Canadian provinces, and 21 other countries. Twenty-seven percent to 31% of these DGs' subscribers responded to a survey evaluating the effectiveness of DGs as communication tools. Reponses showed that DGs were a valuable communication tool for reaching a broad resource pool rapidly and economically. Information requests, meeting announcements, and resource listings have dominated the activity of these DGs. Cooperative extension specialists and county agricultural agents represent most users (69%), followed by researchers (14%), farmers, and those with unlisted job descriptions (7% each). Ease of use, quickness (often within 24 hours), quality and quantity of replies, and the ability to glean timely information for files and newsletters were cited as the most important reasons for using these DGs.
Carl Motsenbocker and Sandra Allain
An organic gardening class was developed to provide nonhorticulture students an opportunity to become acquainted with horticultural science and the basics of gardening organically. The course was developed as a 3-hour (1 hour lecture, 2 hours lab), two-credit course taught in the fall semester using an organic gardening textbook. A major component of the lab is the development and maintenance of a small individual garden plot during the semester. Students grow their own plant materials, plant, fertilize, and monitor pests, and harvest at the end of the semester. The organic gardening class was taught for 7 years and evolved into having a mandatory service-learning component that supports service projects in the local community. Projects included working with the local farmers' market, supporting school projects such as growing plants, school grounds beautification, gardening, or mulching, and gleaning product from research and garden plots for the local food bank. The poster will provide information on the class syllabus and materials, record of service projects, and reflections of the students during and at the end of the class.
Joseph L. Smilanick
copious supporting references gleaned from authors worldwide (about 2000 sources are referenced). When I examined chapters on subjects in which I thought I was well-versed, inevitably I found new and useful information. Early chapters in the book address
highly developed agriculture. Some idea of the agriculture at the time of the European encounter with the New World can be gleaned from the artistic record captured by contemporary artists ( Fig. 1 ). Indeed, most of the crop plants that now contribute to
Robert C. Ebel, Jacqueline K. Burns and Kelly T. Morgan
divided by total yield to determine the percent catch frame loss. Fruit remaining in the canopy after shaking were removed by hand, weighed, and divided by total yield to determine percent gleaned. Total yield was determined by adding the weights of the