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its extreme sensitivity to environmental variations and genotype-by-environment (G × E) interactions ( Dhakare and More, 2008 ; Yadav and Ram, 2010 ). In field evaluation trials, the performance of a genotype is determined by the genotypic main effect

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Tibbitts, 2000 ; Cox et al., 1976 ; Thibodeau and Minotti, 1969 ; Yanagi et al., 1983 ). Yield of lettuce, especially in hot conditions, is controlled by genotype and environment but the influence by the interaction of both is still not well understood

Open Access

genotype plus genotype by environment (GGE) biplot is a beneficial tool for the graphical display of the G×E results. Research with a large number of genotypes evaluated across multiple locations and years makes the G×E and stability analysis a major

Open Access

Two multilocational trials, one comprising 18 Musa clones in three locations and another of 20 genotypes across 11 locations, were set up in 1991 and 1992, respectively, to assess the genotype-by-environment interaction (GxE) for important traits and to select stable high-yielding and black sigatoka (BS)-resistant genotypes. Combined ANOVAs showed significant differences among environments and among genotypes for all traits. GxE affected all growth and yield parameters, except fruit girth. Host response to BS disease also showed significant GxE, but there was no cross-order season-by-year interaction. Hence, genotypic response to BS can be assessed in 1 year during the rainy season, when disease pressure is highest. Genotype-by-location effects were more important than the nonsignificant genotype-by-year effects, supporting the need for multilocational trials. Stability analysis showed that full-sib plantain hybrids (TMPx1) exhibited different host responses to BS as well as different interaction patterns, suggesting that selection for stable BS resistance is possible. The BS-resistant TMPx genotypes had higher yields than the plantain landraces, but showed differences in yield stability. TMPx 1658-4, 2796-5, 5511-2, and 6930-1 have been selected as stable high-yielding hybrids, while the initial best selections (TMPx 548-4 and 548-9) were top yielders only in good environments. [Vuylsteke, D., R. Swennen, and R. Ortiz. 1993. Registration of 14 improved tropical Musa plantain hybrids with black sigatoka resistance. HortScience 28:957–959.]

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Genotype-by-environment interaction (G×E) is a fundamental concern in plant breeding since it hinders developing genotypes with wide geographical usefulness. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) has been widely used to interpret G×E, but it does not elucidate the nature and causes of the interaction. Stability analysis provides a summary of the response patterns of genotypes to different growing environments. Two classes of phytochemicals with putative health promoting activity are carotenoids and tocopherols that are relatively abundant in broccoli. Growing clinical and epidemiological evidence suggests that vegetables with enhanced levels of these phytochemicals can reduce the risk of cancer, cardiovascular, and eye diseases. The objective of this study is to have better understanding of the genetic, environmental and G×E interaction effects of these phytochemicals in broccoli to determine the feasibility of the genetic enhancement. The ANOVA and Shukla's stability test were applied to a set of data generated by the HPLC analysis of different carotenoid and tocopherol forms for six broccoli accessions grown over three environments. The ANOVA results show a significant G×E for both phytochemicals that ranged from 22.6% of the total phenotypic variation for beta-carotene to 54.0% for delta-tocopherol while the environmental effects were nonsignificant. The genotypic effects ranged from as low as 1% for alpha-tocopherol to 31.5% and 36.0% for beta-carotene and gamma-tocopherol, respectively. Stability analysis illustrated that the most stable genotype for all phytochemicals is Brigadier. The results suggest that feasibility of the genetic enhancement for major carotenoids and tocopherols. A second experiment that includes a larger set of genotypes and environments was conducted to confirm the results of this study.

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Michigan State Agricultural Experiment Station Journal no. 12900. We thank the Michigan Pickle Research Committee for support of this research. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal

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1 Assistant Professor, Plant Breeding and Biometrics. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal regulations, this paper therefore must be hereby marked

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regarding the performance of genotypes under different environmental conditions ( Freire Filho et al., 2011 ; Torres et al., 2016 ) Several methods have been developed and applied by plant breeders to explain the genotype × environment interaction at the

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. Production environments in the Upper Midwest are characterized by a warm-summer or hot-summer humid continental climate. Generally in the Midwest, fine-textured soils are rainfed and coarse-textured soils are irrigated. Genotype trials were conducted from

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genetic control and genotype × environment interactions associated with geosmin concentration and TDS in table beet, to facilitate breeding for desired table beet flavor. The earthy flavor in table beet is conferred by geosmin ( trans -1,10-dimethyl- trans

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