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Metka Sisko, Branka Javornik, Aleksander Siftar, and Anton Ivancic

; a stalk as long or longer than fruit; P. pyraster usually thorny, flowers 2 to 2.5 cm across, fruit 1.5 to 3 cm across ( Rehder, 1940 ). Fig. 1. Locations of Pyrus trees included in the study of genetic relationship ( A ); because of the

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Min Deng, Jianjun Chen, Richard J. Henny, and Qiansheng Li

) semioak leaf; 4) spiral leaf; 5) narrow leaf; 6) very narrow leaf; 7) small leaf; 8) interrupted leaf; and 9) recurved leaf. However, information regarding the genetic relationships of cultivated crotons is incomplete. Cytological studies of cultivars

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Xuelin Shen, Yanmei Zhang, Zhao Lei, Yibo Lin, Minxu Cao, Yueyu Hang, and Xiaoqin Sun

widely applied in genetic relationship analysis of nonheading Chinese cabbage ( Han et al., 2007 ; Li et al., 2008 ; Ma et al., 2012 ). However, the identification results based on molecular evidence were not always consistent with those based on

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Sandra M. Reed and Timothy A. Rinehart

current study, which involves a larger pool of both SSR markers and cultivars, is to evaluate genetic diversity more fully in H. macrophylla . We are particularly interested in using the SSR data to study relationships between and within H. macrophylla

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Mariem Bouhadida, Juan P. Martín, Gennady Eremin, Jorge Pinochet, María Á. Moreno, and Yolanda Gogorcena

usefulness of the method to confirm the maternal origin of Prunus interspecific hybrids; 3) to investigate genetic relationships among Prunus species. The characterization of this plant material and the verification of its pedigree before it is introduced

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Sandra M. Reed and Timothy A. Rinehart

, along with H. heteromalla D. Don. Molecular data supported the relationship between these two species and also indicated that they share considerable genetic similarity with Schizophragma Sieb. and Zucc. ( Rinehart et al., 2006 ). Diploid, triploid

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Zhanao Deng, Fahrettin Goktepe, Brent K. Harbaugh, and Jinguo Hu

, 2004 ). Because of these diseases, a number of cultivars have been eliminated from commercial production ( McGovern, 2004 ). Preserving germplasm requires information on the level of genetic diversity and the relationships among cultivars. A previous

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He Li, Cheng-Jiang Ruan, Li Wang, Jian Ding, and Xing-Jun Tian

and planted on a wide scale. More optimal parental combinations need to be selected for cross breeding, and a key step is to clarify the genetic relationships among cultivars ( Becelaere et al., 2005 ). Molecular markers are widely used as a tool for

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Jon Y. Suzuki, Tracie K. Matsumoto, Lisa M. Keith, and Roxana Y. Myers

chloroplast genomes BMC Biol. 7 84 Ranamukhaarachchi, D.G. Henny, R.J. Guy, C.L. Li, Q.B. 2001 DNA fingerprinting to identify nine Anthurium pot plant cultivars and examine their genetic relationship HortScience 36 758 760 Rothwell, G.W. Van Atta, M

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Zhanao Deng, Fahrettin Goktepe, and Brent K. Harbaugh

on genotype S r / s , especially on genotypes S r / S r , S w / S w , and S r / S w . To understand the genetic relationship between veins and spots, the joint segregation of these two traits were analyzed ( Gager, 1991 ). The observed ratios did