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Tingting Zhao, Jingkang Hu, Yingmei Gao, Ziyu Wang, Yufang Bao, Xiaochun Zhang, Huanhuan Yang, Dongye Zhang, Jingbin Jiang, He Zhang, Jingfu Li, Qingshan Chen, and Xiangyang Xu

gene and determine the relationship between SL-ZH13 expression and salt tolerance ability of tomato plants, we applied virus-induced gene silencing technology to decrease the expression level of SL-ZH13 in tomato plants and analyzed changes in the

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Hiroaki Ito, Masaki Ochiai, Hiroaki Kato, Katsuhiro Shiratake, Daigo Takemoto, Shungo Otagaki, and Shogo Matsumoto

silencing endogenous genes such as PDS , magnesium chelatase, a ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase small subunit, an alpha subunit of chloroplast chaperonin, an elongation factor 1, a terminal flower 1, and an isoflavone synthase in a broad range of

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Robert J. Griesbach, Ronald M. Beck, John Hammond, and John R. Stommel

et al., 2005 ). Chalcone syntase gene ( Chs ) was the only anthocyanin biosynthetic gene with differential expression. The downregulation of Chs appears to be mediated by posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Plants showing the Star floral

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Jean-Michel Hily, Michel Ravelonandro, Vern Damsteegt, Carole Bassett, Cesar Petri, Zongrang Liu, and Ralph Scorza

phenotype. These studies have provided evidence that PDR in many cases is based on RNA silencing, named posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) in plants and RNA interference (RNAi) in animal systems ( Hannon, 2002 ; Kooter et al., 1999 ; Matzke et al

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Zongrang Liu, Ralph Scorza, Jean-Michel Hily, Simon W. Scott, and Delano James

resistance limited to a narrow range of closely related isolates ( Baulcombe, 1996a ). RNA-mediated resistance is homology-dependent and related to posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) ( Baulcombe, 1996b ). PTGS is marked by high rates of transgene

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Xiaohong Wang, Bishun Ye, Xiangpeng Kang, Ting Zhou, and Tongfei Lai

-associated secondary metabolites are also rarely reported. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an attractive reverse-genetics tool for the study of gene function in plants. Upon viral infection, plants use their innate RNAi-mediated defense machinery to target the

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Kai Zhao, Feng Zhang, Yi Yang, Yue Ma, Yuexue Liu, He Li, Hongyan Dai, and Zhihong Zhang

( Zhao et al., 2010 ). The aim of this study was to develop dwarf apple lines by silencing of the MdGA20-ox gene. Materials and Methods Plant material and growing conditions. In this study, Hanfu, an elite apple cultivar developed by Shenyang

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Shanshan Seng, Jian Wu, Jiahui Liang, Fengqin Zhang, Qiuyan Yang, Junna He, and Mingfang Yi

. Silencing of GhAGPL1 by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) was performed as described previously ( Zhong et al., 2014 ). Cormels with 6 to 10 mm in diameter were used for VIGS assays. First, a 313-base pair (bp) specific fragment of GhAGPL1 were

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Jin Jiao, Xing Liu, Juyou Wu, Guohua Xu, and Shaoling Zhang

that pollen-tube growth was inhibited when PbrMAPK13 had been silenced ( Fig. 6A ). AS5 was selected for the subsequent experiments. qPCR results indicated that the gene expression of PbrMAPK13 was significantly downregulated after the specific gene

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Robert Griesbach and Ron Beck

Differences in structural gene expression are responsible for a wide range of responses from human cancer to patterned flowers. Gene silencing is one of the ways in which gene expression is controlled. We have developed a model system to study gene silencing using a gene silencing mutation in Petunia ×hybrida (Star mutation) and the ability of certain viruses to reverse the silencing mutation. This model system was used to characterize how the Star flower color pattern was controlled.