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the environment and to subsequent crops, excessive fertilization is not recommended. Research conducted with crops such as tomato, potato, and cotton in which different rates of fertilizers and fungicides were combined to control leaf blight caused by

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component of integrated management, it is necessary to find effective biological and chemical products. Recently, several fungicides have been developed by different manufacturing companies with a new mode of action because of environmental regulations

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Abstract

Several fungicide treatments were assayed separately on ‘Golden Delicious’ and ‘Cox's Orange Pippin’ apples. Depending upon the fungicide treatment, the total sugar content of ‘Golden Delicious’ could be increased by as much as 22%. The distribution of the sugars, the acidity of the apple juice, and the gustative quality also changed with fungicide treatments. A qualitative relationship was observed between the effects on the biochemical composition and the gustative quality of ‘Golden Delicious’ and the chemical structure of the fungicide. The biochemical composition and the gustative quality of ‘Cox's Orange Pippin’ apples did not change with the fungicide treatments.

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germination, or revive later and attack the seedling as a latent infection ( Arya and Perelló, 2010 ; Sharvelle, 1961 ). Fortunately, fungicide applications at seeding are a traditional and effective method of protecting seed from fungal pathogens, thereby

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; Hausbeck and Lamour, 2004 ; Ristaino, 1991 ). Judicious application of fungicides via drip lines or as soil-directed sprays can provide additional control ( Foster and Hausbeck, 2010 ; Kuhn et al., 2011 ; Meyer and Hausbeck, 2013 ). A drip

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tolerant or resistant varieties such as cvs. Magic Lantern, Magician, or Gold Bullion ( McGrath and Davey, 2006 ) and preventive fungicide applications ( Alexander and Waldenmaier, 1999 ; Fitzgerald et al., 2005 ; McGrath and Shishkoff, 1999 ; Shamiyeh

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the growing season ( Koike et al., 2007 ). Because of these factors, PM is an annual pest of cucurbit crops in Kentucky ( Bachi et al., 2010 ). Control of PM in pumpkin is achieved through regularly scheduled fungicide applications during the growing

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were understood in the early 20th century. Keitt et al. (1937) noted that tart cherry fruits from trees that had not been sprayed with fungicides often failed to mature during years when severe CLS symptoms developed early in the season. Therefore, a

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) but this resistance has not yet been incorporated into cultivars. Chemical control of downy mildew is necessary to achieve high yields in the absence of high host plant resistance. The discovery of systemic fungicides was a major advance over

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Demethylation inhibitor fungicides [also known as sterol inhibitor fungicides, belonging to the Fungicide Resistance Action Committee (FRAC) Code Group #3 ( FRAC, 2012 )] are widely used on turfgrasses throughout the United States. These fungicides

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