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Demethylation inhibitor fungicides [also known as sterol inhibitor fungicides, belonging to the Fungicide Resistance Action Committee (FRAC) Code Group #3 ( FRAC, 2012 )] are widely used on turfgrasses throughout the United States. These fungicides

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Fruit of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) were treated with 0–104 mg/liter of the fungicides: benomyl (methyl-1-[butylcarbamoyl]-2-benzimidazole carbamate); etaconazole (l-{[2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-ethyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl]-methyl}-1 H-1,2,4-triazole); fenapanil (1-butyl-1-phenyl-1 H-imidazole-1-propanenitrile); imazalil (1-[2-allyloxyl-2-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)ethyl]imidazole); and prochloraz (l-{N-propyl-N-[2-(2,4,6-trich-lorophenoxy) ethyl]}carbamoyliinidazole). Damage from Fusarium rots, Geotrichum and Rhizopus soft rots, and Alternaria surface blemish was assessed. Fenapanil, imazalil, and prochloraz had the most useful range of fungicidal activities. Prochloraz was the most efficacious fungicide tested, expressed as disease control per unit concentration of active ingredient.

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Triphenyltin hydroxide fungicide sprays were applied at 114, 455, or 910 g·ha-1 either 0, 1, 3, 5, or 10 times during pollination of `Success' pecans [Carya illinoensis (Wangenh.) K. Koch]. Pretreatment flower counts were compared to post-treatment fruit counts 7 and 9 weeks after pollination to determine if chemical rate or application frequency affected fruit set. There were no significant differences among rates, application frequency, or combinations in fruit drop (P > 0.35 in all cases). indicating that spraying this chemical did triphenyltin hydroxide (fentin hydroxide).

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Wind-induced blemishing known as windscar and lesions from the disease melanose (caused by Diaporthe citri) are two of the most important causes of fresh grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) cullage in Florida. Copper hydroxide fungicides are the primary means of controlling melanose, but high air velocities from passing sprayers have been suspected of increasing windscar. In 1998 and 1999, airblast applications of Cu(OH)2 (1.7 kg·ha-1 Cu) were made at a range of early fruit development stages to a fresh grapefruit orchard in the Indian River region of Florida. These applications supplemented aerial sprays of Cu(OH)2 that were made uniformly across the entire experimental site at biweekly intervals beginning near full bloom. During the commercial harvest period fruit were sampled from three regions (interior, upper exterior, and lower exterior) of each treatment tree and were evaluated for percentage of fruit surface covered by windscar and severity of melanose. Airblast applications did not affect windscar in either year, but windscar was significantly greater from the upper exterior of the canopy, which is likely to experience the highest natural wind velocities. From these data, it appears unlikely that airblast applications significantly contribute to windscar of Indian River grapefruit. In 1998, no trees receiving airblast applications had significantly lower melanose incidence than the trees sprayed only via aircraft; however, trees receiving four airblast applications were scored as having higher apparent melanose on exterior samples than trees receiving most other treatments. This is consistent with high levels of Cu injury on these fruit which can superficially resemble melanose. Following treatment in 1999, trees receiving four airblast applications of Cu(OH)2 had significantly lower melanose scores than trees receiving either no or only early airblast applications, but were not significantly different from trees receiving a single spray 5.5 weeks postbloom. A computer model, which estimates Cu levels on fruit based on fruit growth, rainfall, and application parameters, indicated exterior fruit receiving four airblast sprays had >3 μg·cm-2 [Cu] for 40 days in 1998 but only 10 days in 1999, which reflects increased probability of Cu damage in 1998. It appears that aerial application supplemented by airblast merits further study as an economical means of melanose control.

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germination, or revive later and attack the seedling as a latent infection ( Arya and Perelló, 2010 ; Sharvelle, 1961 ). Fortunately, fungicide applications at seeding are a traditional and effective method of protecting seed from fungal pathogens, thereby

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mechanisms ( Guest and Grant, 1991 ; Smillie et al., 1989 ). The benefits of phosphite as a fungicide include low cost, high mobility within plants, persistence in plant tissue, multiple action sites as a fungicide, and low mammalian and environmental

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tolerant or resistant varieties such as cvs. Magic Lantern, Magician, or Gold Bullion ( McGrath and Davey, 2006 ) and preventive fungicide applications ( Alexander and Waldenmaier, 1999 ; Fitzgerald et al., 2005 ; McGrath and Shishkoff, 1999 ; Shamiyeh

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flood-floor production systems ( Hoitink, 1991 ), leading to crop damage and loss and requiring proactive management strategies. Fungicide application is a common and important strategy to limit pythium root rot in greenhouse production ( Moorman and Kim

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sanitation to prevent overwintering and spread of inoculum. Additionally, fungicide use is the most common and effective method to prevent fungal diseases in nursery crops. For powdery mildew management on ornamentals, azoxystrobin ( Hagan et al. 2004

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the environment and to subsequent crops, excessive fertilization is not recommended. Research conducted with crops such as tomato, potato, and cotton in which different rates of fertilizers and fungicides were combined to control leaf blight caused by

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