were addressed: 1) What is the student perception of the appearance, maintenance, sustainability, and functionality of the sustainable landscape surrounding Independence Hall on Laird Campus? 2) Will the introduction of environmental interpretation on
Kristen A. Saksa, Thomas W. Ilvento, and Susan S. Barton
Kari Hugie, Chengyan Yue, and Eric Watkins
landscapes ( Helfand et al., 2006 ). Thus, two levels of shade adaptation (“sun only” and “sun and shade”) and origin (“U.S. native” and “non-native”) were also included in the conjoint design. Survey. The total number of possible attribute combinations was
Li-Chun Huang and Yen-Chun Lin
, functional value, social value, and expressive value, which refer, respectively, to their economic worth, utilitarian characteristics, ability to construct social ties or maintain relationships, and being expressive of the giver’s self-identity ( Larsen and
Emily A. Barton, Susan S. Barton, and Thomas Ilvento
; the session content and instructional strategies remained constant. We hypothesized that Master Gardeners’ perceptions of the overall training would align with the technical functionality of the system, based on learners’ ability or inability to access
Bin Peng, Jianlan Xu, Zhixiang Cai, Binbin Zhang, Mingliang Yu, and Ruijuan Ma
-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Then, the AATs were heterologously expressed and functionally characterized using the oleaginous yeast system. Furthermore, we also conducted enzyme assays on AATs, which were heterologously expressed and purified
Candice A. Shoemaker and P. Diane Relf
Surveys of consumers and the recently bereaved were conducted to determine who sends flowers as a sympathy gift and when and why sympathy flowers are sent. Of consumers, 85% sent flowers as a sympathy gift at least once; similarly, 84% of the recently bereaved had sent sympathy flowers. Most sympathy flowers are sent to close friends (63%) and close family members (62%), and sympathy flowers are most often received from close friends (56%) and close family members (43%). Ninety-three percent send flowers as a sympathy gift immediately after notification of a death. According to our survey, sympathy flowers serve two roles in the bereavement process—an emotional and a functional role. Except contact of family and friends, participants indicated that receiving sympathy flowers to help deal with grief was equally or more valuable than all rituals associated with funerals.
Candice A. Shoemaker, P. Diane Relf, and Clifton D. Bryant
An important sector of florists' business is sympathy flowers. Although flowers are still a component of the funeral, florists are seeing a decline in their sympathy sales. Do flowers serve a role in the funeral ritual? Surveys of funeral directors, grief therapists, and the recently bereaved were conducted to answer this question.
Survey results show that sympathy flowers serve two very different roles in the bereavement process - an emotional role and a functional role. In the emotional role, flowers at the funeral symbolize the care and sympathy people feel towards the survivors. The flowers provide comfort to both the sender and the receiver. Flowers also serve a more functional role, that is, the flowers are noticed in very tangible ways. During the visitation or funeral service the flowers are looked at, touched, smelled, or talked about. The flowers provide a diversion or a starting point for conversation.
A better understanding of the role of sympathy flowers in funeral rituals can help florists, funeral directors, and grief therapists better serve their customers or clients.
Plants are the foundation for a significant part of human medicine and for many of the most widely used drugs designed to prevent, treat, and cure disease. Folkloric information concerning traditional remedies for disease has had inestimable value in establishing familial and cultural linkages. During the 20th century, modern medical science in the U.S. and other developed countries ushered in a new era focused on synthetic medicines. Even though many of these compounds were based on natural compounds found in plants, the drive towards synthetic pharmaceuticals created a knowledge gap concerning the health functionality of plants, crops, and food. Paralleling this development, biochemists and nutritional scientists pioneered the discovery of vitamins during the early decades of the 20th century. This research paved the way for dietary guidelines based on empirical data collected from animal feeding trials and set the stage for the current emphasis on phytonutrients. Three primary stages characterize the use of fruits and vegetable in human health. The first stage concerns the observation that many fruit and vegetable crops were originally domesticated for their medicinal properties. Making their way into the diet for this purpose, fruit and vegetable crops remained on the fringe from a culinary point of view. The second stage began when the role of vitamins became more widely understood, and fruit and vegetable plants were quickly recognized as a rich source of certain vitamins, minerals, and fiber. At this point, they became more than just an afterthought in the diet of most U.S. citizens. Cartoon icons such as Popeye made the case for the health functionality of leafy greens, while parents schooled their children on the virtues of carrots (Daucus carota), broccoli (Brassica oleracea), and green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris). This renaissance resulted in large increases in fresh fruit and vegetable consumption across the country, a trend that continues to this day. The third phase can be characterized by the recognition that fruit and vegetable crops contain compounds that have the potential to influence health beyond nutritional value. These so-called functional foods figure prominently in the dietary recommendations developed during the last decades of the 20th century. In recent years, surveys suggest nearly two-thirds of grocery shoppers purchase food specifically to reduce the risk of, or manage a specific health condition. Evidence abounds that consumers, including Baby Boomers, choose foods for specific health benefits, such as the antioxidant potential of vegetables, suggesting high levels of nutritional literacy. Clinical and in vitro data have, to some degree, supported the claims that certain foods have the potential to deter disease, however much research remains to be conducted in order to definitively answer specific dietary-based questions about food and health.
Attila Hegedüs, Zoltán Szabó, József Nyéki, Júlia Halász, and Andrzej Pedryc
The most commercially grown peach [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] cultivars do not require cross-pollination for reasonable fruit set; however, self-incompatibility is a well-known feature within the Prunoideae subfamily. Isoelectric focusing and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of S-ribonucleases; PCR analyses of S-RNase and S-haplotype-specific F-box genes as well as DNA sequencing were carried out to survey the self-(in)compatibility allele pool and to uncover the nature of self-compatibility in peach. From 25 cultivars and hybrids with considerable diversity in phenotype and origin, only two S-haplotypes were detected. Allele identity could be checked by exact length determination of the PCR-amplified fragments and/or partial sequencing of the peach S 1-, S 2-, and Prunus davidiana (Carr.) Franch. S 1-RNases. S-RNases of peach were detected to possess ribonuclease activity, and a single nucleotide polymorphism in the S 1-RNase was shown, which represents a synonymous substitution and does not change the amino acid present at the position in the protein. A 700-bp fragment of the peach SFB gene was PCR-amplified, which is similar to the fragment size of functional Prunus L. SFBs. All data obtained in this study may support the contribution of genes outside the S-locus to the self-compatible phenotype of peaches.
The success of long-term vegetable production and maintenance of environmental quality is dependent on soil quality. Indicators of soil quality include cation exchange capacity (CEC), organic matter (OM), carbon (C), pH, and the number and community structure of soil organisms. The use of appropriate compost has been shown to improve soil quality and enhance the response to fertilizer, therefore improving growth and yield of vegetable crops. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in the chemical and biological properties of soil in response to compost use in conventional vegetables production systems. A survey was conducted on 5 farms (three in Immokalee, and one each in Delray Beach, and Clewiston) growing tomato, pepper, and specialty vegetables. Most of the farms were applying composted yard trimming waste alone or in combination with biosolids or horse manure at application rates of between 7 to 112 Mg·ha-1 once a year. Soil samples were taken from composted and non-composted areas in each farm during Feb. and Mar. 2002. Soil pH, OM, C, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, MN and Zn were higher in the composted areas compared with the non-composted areas for each farm. CEC values in composted areas were double those in non-composted areas. Most importantly, application of compost enhanced the overall soil microbial activity as determined by total microorganism number, SRD (species richness diversity), and TSRD (total species richness diversity) of six functional groups including heterotrophic aerobic bacteria, anaerobic bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, pseudomonads, and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, in all the participating farms. The greatest soil quality improvement was seen in soils receiving the highest rates of compost for the longest time.