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In common with all other industries, horticulture is at present overwhelmingly fossil-fueled—in everything from the manufacture of fertilizer and other chemical inputs, through farm operations, to produce distribution ( Paris et al. 2022

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Worldwide energy consumption is greater now than any time in the past, leading to higher fuel prices and costly greenhouse production. This trend is expected to continue because of the increasing population and improving living standards

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growth within a more traditional warm, well-insulated greenhouse, without CO 2 injection. This experiment was combined with simulations using Virtual Grower software ( Frantz et al., 2010 ) that compared cost, fuel use, and C consumed because of heating

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, parking lots, buildings, and so on. In addition, golf facilities require energy to operate, which includes everything from fuel for machines to electricity for office equipment. Human behavior and facility design that govern energy use can have an

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U.S. Environmental Protection Agency-Region 2 has provided support for the installation of the LFG-fueled microturbine and desalinization system, and for demonstration of the aquaponic and algal culture systems at the BCRRC greenhouse site.

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. Although oil and natural gas prices fluctuated by 100% or more in the last 3 years, generally fuel prices have risen by 50% over the last 10 years ( U.S. Dept. Energy, 2009 ). Faced with these costs, growers often lower temperature set points to decrease

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, trees represent a significant positive contribution to the environment. Field-grown tree production results in emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), which contribute 13.3 (adjusted to 16.5 for a consistent, more inclusive GWP of fuels), 17.1 and 17.1 kg

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this reason, energy costs are second only to labor costs as the most expensive factor in indirect costs of greenhouse production. While oil and natural gas prices fluctuated by 100% or more in the last 3 years, generally, fuel prices have risen by 50

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Abstract

Liquid fuels, the most versatile form of energy, primarily are produced from oil. They are subject to wide price fluctuations and critical shortages. Ethanol, which can be used as a liquid fuel or liquid fuel supplement, readily can be produced from starch and sugar feedstocks. Ethanol production from cellulosic sources or biomass can provide renewable, domestically produced fuel from the decentralized sources of U.S. farms and forests. Such production has other stategic implications for the United States, such as strengthening the farm economy, reducing vulnerability to oil boycotts, and reducing the amounts of dollars exported. More information is available on using ethanol in internal combustion engines than any other nonpetroleum-based liquid fuel. For these reasons, ethanol represents the best near-term choice for a liquid fuel from biomass.

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become fierce. Many factors have put downward pressure on price. These include the recent volatility of fossil fuels and general energy prices, domestic competition, off-shore production, a weakened and stressed economy, and the growth of the mass market

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