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Juliano Martins Ramalho Marques, Ariana P. Torres, Bridget K. Behe, Petrus Langenhoven, and Luiz Henrique de Barros Vilas Boas

researchers and extension personnel working in food systems, consumers, and fresh fruit retailers. Similar to the work by Torres et al. (2020 ), the survey was distributed by LightSpeed GMI (Bridgewater, NJ) during late Summer and early Fall 2018 to potential

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James M. Monaghan

Recent European outbreaks of Salmonella thompson and S. newport have been associated with salad rocket (Eruca vesicaria ssp. sativa) and head lettuce (Lactuca sativa), respectively. These cases emphasize the need for good agricultural and manufacturing practices for fruit and vegetables that are to be consumed raw, and the potential for large outbreaks related to fresh produce that is distributed widely. In contrast to North America, legislation in the United Kingdom (U.K.) and Europe has moved responsibility for fresh produce food safety away from government and into the supply chain. In the U.K. it is the retailers, notably Marks and Spencer with the Field to Fork codes of practice, who are driving the food safety agenda through the development of their own standards. It is retailer technologists who have been the main motivators and educators of suppliers to apply risk management to limiting or preventing microbial contamination of fresh produce.

Open access

J. L. Maas


Fruit rots are probably the most important diseases of small fruit crops. Current statistics are not available for all small fruit crops, however, losses of strawberry fruit to pre- and postharvest fruit rots may conservatively be in the millions of dollars annually to growers, processors, and retailers. Losses from fruit rots vary from year to year and from locality to locality according to weather conditions prevailing during harvest. During wet weather, 30-50% or more of a strawberry crop may be lost to Botrytis rot, even with liberal use of fungicides. This, coupled with an increasing concern with development of fungicide-resistant strains of rot-causing organisms, particularly Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr., and the development of mechanical harvesting methods have intensified the need to identify small fruit germplasm sources for fruit rot resistance.

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Carlos H. Crisosto, R. Scott Johnson, Gayle M. Crisosto, John Labavich, and David Garner

During the past two seasons, the relationship between fruit ripening “ON” or “OFF” the tree and internal breakdown incidence was studied with `Elegant Lady' and `O'Henry' peach cultivars. Internal breakdown (IB) visual symptom development was delayed in fruit harvested at different physiological maturities and exposed to different “OFF” the tree pre-ripening treatments. As a follow up, different pre-ripening treatments (controlled delayed cooling) were tested for several peach, nectarine, and plum cultivars susceptible to IB. This pre-ripening treatment delayed flesh browning, mealiness, and off-fl avor development after a simulated shipment and retailer handling period for `Flavorcrest', `Elegant Lady', `O'Henry', `Parade', `Fairtime', `Carnival', `Prima Gattie', `Last Chance', `Autumn Gem', `Autumn Lady', and `Autumn Rose' peaches; `Summer Grand' and `September Red' nectarines; and `Fortune' plum. However, decay development may be a problem. Delayed cooling at 20°C must be carried out with fruit protected with fungicide and wax for the shortest possible, but still effective, length of time to limit IB. The temperature and the length of this pre-ripening treatment, and the presence or absence of ethylene during the delayed cooling is cultivar dependent. Thus, specific pre-ripening conditions must be developed for each cultivar.

Open access

Julie H. Campbell and Benjamin L. Campbell

garden supplies, retailers must become increasingly knowledgeable about how they are viewed by current and potential customers. Yue and Behe (2008) found that consumers purchasing foliage and garden plants were more likely to choose a “box store

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David C. Diehl, Nicole L. Sloan, Christine M. Bruhn, Amarat H. Simonne, Jeffrey K. Brecht, and Elizabeth J. Mitcham

produce industry association staff members dealing with the relevant fruit. Consistent with the objectives and approaches of the broader project, the interviewees represented predominantly large growers, packer/shippers, and retailers. Grower production

Free access

Ruchen Zhou, Chengyan Yue, Shuoli Zhao, R. Karina Gallardo, Vicki McCracken, James J. Luby, and James R. McFerson

free samples of peaches in stores and target more of the samples to female consumers. In addition, by sourcing products from growers and shippers who reliably provide fruit superior for these two key attributes, wholesalers and retailers could build up

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Chengyan Yue, R. Karina Gallardo, Vicki A. McCracken, James Luby, James R. McFerson, Lan Liu, and Amy Iezzoni

consider marketer feedback as less important, and red raspberry breeders rate consumer needs, retailer feedback, and available premiums as less important than non-peach stone fruit breeders. Blackberry breeders rated intended use of the crop for processing

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Chengyan Yue, R. Karina Gallardo, James Luby, Alicia Rihn, James R. McFerson, Vicki McCracken, Vance M. Whitaker, Chad E. Finn, James F. Hancock, Cholani Weebadde, Audrey Sebolt, and Amy Iezzoni

grades and standards and thus the price received by producers ( U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Marketing Service, 2004 ). Shelf life at retail is an important trait for packers and retailers because it influences the amount of fruit lost

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Chengyan Yue, R. Karina Gallardo, James J. Luby, Alicia L. Rihn, James R. McFerson, Vicki McCracken, Tom Gradziel, Ksenija Gasic, Gregory L. Reighard, John Clark, and Amy Iezzoni

supply, inconsistent quality, and fruit handling problems ( Brunke and Chang, 2012 ). Consumers of fresh peaches are often frustrated with inconsistent flavor and textural quality, flesh browning, and insipid taste ( Brunke and Chang, 2012 ). To enhance