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group developed a handheld tool (Equilifruit; INRA, Montpelier, France) as a guide for thinning by spur extinction (removal) and by fruit removal. The hand-thinning gauge is a small plastic disc with 11 semicircular notches of varying diameters ( Fig. 1

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measuring fruit diameter changes accurately and at a sufficiently low cost to allow proper replication of the experiments. In recent decades, continuous and precise monitoring of stem and fruit diameter changes have been carried out by automatic gauges, most

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Abstract

A device was designed to permit accurate and rapid measurement of the abscission or removal force of peaches when used with a mechanical force gauge. To handle fruit of different sizes, small and large units were constructed. A detail drawing of the two units is shown. This instrument was used to study the physiology of abscission, chemicals for thinning, and chemicals for uniform ripening of peaches for mechanical harvesting as related to the removal force.

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An accurate and efficient system for measuring and recording fruit quality data was developed. Utilizing this procedure and custom made instrumentation. two individuals can efficiently collect, measure and record the following data: apple fruit size (weight and diameter), % red skin color, length/diameter ratio, flesh firmness, soluble solids. seed count. and starch-iodine index at a rate exceeding 60 fruit/hour. If starch iodine and seed counts are eliminated, 100 fruit/hour rates can he achieved. One individual can test 40-50 fruit/hour.

Testing equipment/materials consist of a mechanical weight scale; custom made length/diameter ratio gauge; custom made flesh firmness instrumentation; refractometer; starch-iodine solution and pie pans; and an electronic data-logger. All data is manually entered. The use of custom equipment constructed from readily available parts combined with the UVM Fruit Testing Protocol, has greatly enhanced the speed and accuracy of testing, measuring and quantifying apple fruit quality data.

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Abstract

Fruit firmness for 55 red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) clones was determined at 2 locations with a Hunter Series L. portable pressure gauge. The force required to close the opening in the fruit, termed compression, and the force required to release juice, termed exudation, were measured when force was applied at right angles to the long axis of the fruit. Compression values for the firmest clones, SHRI 6820/54, SHRI 6820/41, SHRI 705/32, ‘Glen Isla’ and SHRI 6820/35, were 2 to 4 times greater than for the clones with the softest fruit. For compression values, significant correlations were obtained over clones for years and for locations. Compression and exudation values were significantly correlated.

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Abstract

Red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit firmness, measured as compression force with a Hunter Series L portable pressure gauge, was determined from 15 parent clones and for 813 seedlings derived from 44 crosses. Heritability estimate for fruit firmness, based on parent/offspring regression, was .90 ± .13. Analysis of variance of progeny data showed that general combining ability variance (additive) was significant and much larger than specific combining ability variance. Of the parent clones, ‘Glen Isla’, ‘Glen Prosen’, SHRI6820/41, and SHRI6820/64 had the firmest fruit and, on the basis of progeny analysis, had the highest general combining ability parent values. Low parental values were obtained for ‘Sumner’, ‘Mailing Leo’, ‘Mailing Admiral’, ‘Taylor’, ‘Haida’, and ‘Meeker’.

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Winter buds of `Concord' and `Niagara' grapevines were dissected and their embryonic clusters scored to developmental stage. Stage was regressed against flower and fruit number per cluster the following year to see if flowering or fruiting potential could be gauged from bud morphology. `Concord' vines were either minimal-pruned (MP) or balance-pruned (BP) and non-irrigated or provided supplemental irrigation. `Niagara' vines were BP vines which were non-irrigated, irrigated, or nitrogen fertigated. Winter buds of MP `Concord' were significantly less developed than buds of BP vines, and flower and fruit number per cluster also significantly less. Irrigation did not affect bud construction or flower or fruit number per cluster in either pruning regime. Winter buds of `Niagara' had similar cluster stages in all treatments and there were similar flower and fruit number per cluster the following season. Within cultivar and year, there was a positive linear relationship between mean flower number or fruit number per cluster and mean stage of cluster differentiation within buds the previous dormant period. In `Concord', a given winter cluster stage allowed production of significantly more flowers and fruit in 1992 than it did in 1993. A bud's flowering potential thus varies from year to year and depends on factors not solely related to bud morphology.

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Prior work indicated that volatile compounds produced by macerated strawberry fruit occurred at levels capable of affecting pathogen development. To determine if a less-severe injury, such as bruising, would alter the volatile profile of strawberry fruit, the headspace volatiles from ripe `Tribute' strawberry fruit were sampled with SPME fiber during the 15 min immediately following and from 75 to 90 min following application of a compression bruise. The compression bruise was applied with a force gauge, and fruit were kept in a closed bottle at room temperature during the study. Of the 14 major volatile products consistently produced by all fruit, acetate esters derived from hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, and (Z)-3-hexenal increased most, over 50%, in response to bruising during the first interval. During the later interval, bruised fruit produced over 50% more (E)-2-hexenyl acetate and hexyl acetate than control fruit. Most notably, the ratio of levels of (E)-2-hexenyl acetate produced by bruised compared to control fruit were the highest among all 14 major volatiles, over 150% more after 15 min and 270% more at 90 min. Headspace levels of the 6-carbon acetate esters declined for both control and bruised fruit between 15 and 90 min, while levels of the other major volatiles increased. The other 11 volatile compounds were commonly identified aroma volatiles. Headspace levels of some of these were also higher from bruised than control fruit. In particular, headspace levels of ethyl butyrate were increased by bruising 13% after 15 min but over 100% after 90 min, the most of any volatile product other than (E)-2-hexenyl acetate.

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The postharvest life of blackberries is shortened by decay, leakage, and softness. Shelf life is shortened after periods of rainfall, and often fruit that appear firm in the field soften rapidly in storage. Blackberry selections of interest for advanced selections from plants without fungicide application are routinely screened for shelf life at Lane by storing fruit at 5 °C for seven days. Blackberry varieties are increasingly being used for farmer's markets, national, and international markets. A rapid test to gauge shelf life of blackberry varieties new to growers would be useful in determining the best type of marketing. Ripe blackberries were harvested from Clarksville, Ark., and transported in 260 g plastic clamshells on ice (about 5 °C) to Lane, Okla. Berries were weighed upon arrival and placed at 5 or at 20 °C for 7 and 2 days, respectively. Overall ratings were considerably worse at 20 °C compared to 5 °C, often with decay on all fruit in clamshells held at 20 °C. Separate subsamples of berries, placed individually in egg cartons and held over water at 20 °C (a 99% relative humidity) yielded Rhizopus, Collectotricum, and Botrytis cinerea growth after 24 hours. Because 2 days at 20 °C proved to cause decay in blackberries too quickly, fruit will be held for 1 day at 20 °C in the next season.

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( Citrus unshiu ) fruit per day ( Sugiura et al., 2002a , 2002b ). The contents and composition of carotenoids in citrus fruit vary greatly depending on cultivar and growing conditions ( Dhuique-Mayer et al., 2005 , 2009 ; Fanciullino et al., 2006

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