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Hong Chen, Greg McCollum, Elizabeth Baldwin and Jinhe Bai

collected, AS and HLB, because it was not possible to find trees that qualified as HLB-B trees. Samples were taken on 19 Jan., 3 and 19 Feb., and 3 Mar. 2014 in the same manner as for ‘Hamlin’. Fruit detachment force. The FDF was measured using a digital

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Carl E. Motsenbocker

Field and greenhouse studies examined the fruit detachment force (FDF) and fruit and pedicel characteristics of two lines of tabasco pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) at several stages of maturity. The detachment force of red-mature `McIlhenny Select' fruit at the calyx-fruit detachment area was lower than that of less mature fruit stages. The force required to detach red-mature Hard Pick (HP) tabasco fruit was higher than that of redmature `McIlhenny Select' fruit in the field and greenhouse. The fruit detachment force of red field-grown HP fruit was higher, and in the greenhouse was lower, than that of green or breaker fruit. HP fruit of all maturity stages, except red-mature, separated similarly to `McIlhenny Select' fruit with little or no fruit tissue attached to the calyx. Fruit detachment force was not correlated with any fruit or pedicel characteristics studied.

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Kay P. Gersch, Carl E. Motsenbocker and Gregory A. Lang

Cayenne pepper fruit adhere tightly to the calyx/receptacle, increasing the cost of hand harvest and restricting mechanical harvest. Eight (8) cayenne pepper genotypes were selected from field observations to characterize fruit detachment forces(FDFs) and examine potential relationships between FDF and other fruit parameters. A preliminary greenhouse experiment revealed two genotypes with consistently lower FDFs and two with consistently higher FDFs over several progressive harvest. A field experiment confirmed these characteristics. No correlation between any fruit parameter and FDF was found to be consistent over the genotypes studied.

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Anish Malladi, Tripti Vashisth and Lisa Klima Johnson

and Gaye, 1999 ). The application of fruit-loosening agents that can decrease the force required for fruit detachment can contribute greatly toward enhancing the efficiency of mechanical harvesting ( Burns, 2002 ; Burns et al., 2005 ). Abscission

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Robert C. Ebel, Jacqueline K. Burns, Kelly T. Morgan and Fritz Roka

speed, and fruit detachment force ( Whitney, 1997 ). There are two kinds of canopy shakers currently used in the commercial citrus industry in Florida. “Pull-behind” canopy shakers are pulled behind a tractor and drop fruit to the ground ( Whitney

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Karthik-Joseph John-Karuppiah and Jacqueline K. Burns

, fruit detachment force, and gene expression. Leaf abscission and FDF were measured immediately after treatment and after 6 h and 1, 2, 4, and 7 d of application. Ten branches (each with about 100 leaves; ≈1 year old) per treatment were tagged to follow

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Lisa Tang, Shweta Chhajed and Tripti Vashisth

, there was no obvious difference in peel color for tight fruit and loose fruit (irrespective of HLB severity). Fig. 2. The percentages of tight and loose fruit (fruit detachment force >6 and ≤6 kgf, respectively) collected 3 weeks before harvest from

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Jacqueline K. Burns, Louise Ferguson, Kitren Glozer, William H. Krueger and Richard C. Rosecrance

characteristic white milky juice from fruit when squeezed ( Ferguson et al., 2005 ). Fruit detachment force (FDF) was measured at various times up to 17 d after application using an Imada DPA-11 digital force gauge (Imada, Northbrook, IL). At various times

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Raquel González-Herranz, Kimberley A. Cathline, Matthew W. Fidelibus and Jacqueline K. Burns

fruit-bearing canes ≈1 week before harvest, which reduces fruit detachment force (FDF) and causes the rachis to become dry and brittle so that the cluster tends to break apart during harvest, allowing some berries to remain attached to their pedicels

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Matthew W. Fidelibus, Kimberley A. Cathline and Jacqueline K. Burns

-air oven (60 °C) until they reached a constant weight. Clusters of grapes on vines from all the plots were carefully harvested and brought into a laboratory where fruit detachment force (FDF) measurements were made. Any grapes that detached from the vines