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Tripti Vashisth and Anish Malladi

detachment are not well understood. Enhancing our knowledge of the process of fruit detachment can greatly aid in developing methods to increase the efficiency of mechanical harvesting, which can in turn reduce the costs associated with blueberry production

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Anish Malladi, Tripti Vashisth, and Scott NeSmith

, Steve Stringer, and Jim Ballington, personal communications). An additional area of research is the development of abscission agents that can facilitate fruit detachment and enhance the efficiency of mechanical harvesting ( Malladi et al., 2012 ; Takeda

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Tripti Vashisth, D. Scott NeSmith, and Anish Malladi

Blueberry is a fruit crop of rapidly emerging economic significance in the United States. Harvesting practices during blueberry production can be improved through a better understanding of the process of fruit detachment. Mature fruit detachment in

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Anish Malladi, Tripti Vashisth, and Lisa Klima Johnson

and Gaye, 1999 ). The application of fruit-loosening agents that can decrease the force required for fruit detachment can contribute greatly toward enhancing the efficiency of mechanical harvesting ( Burns, 2002 ; Burns et al., 2005 ). Abscission

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Hong Chen, Greg McCollum, Elizabeth Baldwin, and Jinhe Bai

collected, AS and HLB, because it was not possible to find trees that qualified as HLB-B trees. Samples were taken on 19 Jan., 3 and 19 Feb., and 3 Mar. 2014 in the same manner as for ‘Hamlin’. Fruit detachment force. The FDF was measured using a digital

Open access

Dennis J. Werner and S. Honma

Abstract

Fruit detachment force (FDF) in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) was measured using mature fruit for the parental, F1, and F2 populations from the cross MSU 160 × MSU 249. Fruit detachment force was controlled by a low number of effective factors (k = 1-2) behaving mainly in an additive manner. Correlation coefficients between fruit detachment force and fruit length, width, and weight calculated from F2 data were positive and significant at the 1% level.

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Kay P. Gersch, Carl E. Motsenbocker, and Gregory A. Lang

Cayenne pepper fruit adhere tightly to the calyx/receptacle, increasing the cost of hand harvest and restricting mechanical harvest. Eight (8) cayenne pepper genotypes were selected from field observations to characterize fruit detachment forces(FDFs) and examine potential relationships between FDF and other fruit parameters. A preliminary greenhouse experiment revealed two genotypes with consistently lower FDFs and two with consistently higher FDFs over several progressive harvest. A field experiment confirmed these characteristics. No correlation between any fruit parameter and FDF was found to be consistent over the genotypes studied.

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Carl E. Motsenbocker

Field and greenhouse studies examined the fruit detachment force (FDF) and fruit and pedicel characteristics of two lines of tabasco pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) at several stages of maturity. The detachment force of red-mature `McIlhenny Select' fruit at the calyx-fruit detachment area was lower than that of less mature fruit stages. The force required to detach red-mature Hard Pick (HP) tabasco fruit was higher than that of redmature `McIlhenny Select' fruit in the field and greenhouse. The fruit detachment force of red field-grown HP fruit was higher, and in the greenhouse was lower, than that of green or breaker fruit. HP fruit of all maturity stages, except red-mature, separated similarly to `McIlhenny Select' fruit with little or no fruit tissue attached to the calyx. Fruit detachment force was not correlated with any fruit or pedicel characteristics studied.

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Kay P. Gersch, Carl E. Motsenbocker, and Gregory A. Lang

Of eight genotypes of cayenne pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) examined, two were identified that differ significantly in ease of fruit detachment force. Greenhouse and field-grown plants of these genotypes, Cajun 1-9027 and Cap-9004, were investigated for differences in cell type and organization at the fruit and receptacle junction. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that mature Cajun 1-9027 fruit that did not separate exhibited a distinct region of sclerified cells that extended from the periphery of the fruit into the receptacle for 25 to 30 cell layers. In contrast, mature fruit of the more readily detachable Cap-9004 had 10 to 15 layers of sclerified cells at the region of detachment. Histochemical and stereological techniques indicated that Cajun 1-9027 had a greater volume of sclereids than Cap-9004. Cajun 1-9027 exhibited smaller cortical cells in the detachment region than Cap-9004. Neither genotype exhibited a well-defined abscission zone at maturity in the detachment region. The presence of more sclerified cells and increased lignification in Cajun 1-9027 compared to Cap-9004 probably contributed to the differences in ease of detachment between the two genotypes.

Open access

Charles M. Mainland and Gene J. Galletta

Abstract

Fourteen highbush blueberry cultivars and selections differed greatly in percentage blue and green fruit removed during a 3 second vibration of individual fruiting shoots with a hand-held vibrator. With cultivars ‘Croatan’, ‘Wolcott’, ‘Morrow’, ‘Murphy’, and ‘Collins’ more than 90% of the blue fruit and less than 15% green fruit were removed. These cultivars have desirable detachment characteristics and required a force of less than 85 g to remove individual blue fruit.