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Suzette P. Galinato, Aidan Kendall, and Carol A. Miles

evaluating the economic feasibility of two orchard production systems common in commercial cider apple orchards in Washington State, freestanding and tall spindle trellis, and we estimate the costs for harvest mechanization (both systems) and mechanical

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D.L. Peterson, S.S. Miller, and J.D. Whitney

Three years of mechanical harvesting (shake and catch) trials with two freestanding apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) cultivars on a semidwarf rootstock (M.7a) and two training systems (central leader and open center) yielded 64% to 77% overall harvesting efficiency. Mechanically harvested `Bisbee Delicious' apples averaged 70% Extra Fancy and 10% Fancy grade, while two `Golden Delicious' strains (`Smoothee' and `Frazier Goldspur') averaged 40% Extra Fancy and 13% Fancy grade fruit. Mechanically harvesting fresh-market-quality apples from semidwarf freestanding trees was difficult and its potential limited. Cumulative yield of open-center trees was less than that of central-leader trees during the 3 years (sixth through eighth leaf) of our study. `Golden Delicious' trees generally produced higher yields than `Delicious' trees.

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Bryan Blackburn and Curt R. Rom

The effects of six freestanding training systems (Open Center, Untrained, 2-Scaffold V, 4-Scaffold V, Leaning V, and Central Leader at tree densities of 161, 161, 245, 375, 375, and 300 trees/acre, respectively) on yield and tree growth of `Redhaven' on Lovell rootstock were evaluated. Open-center and untrained trees were largest and had greatest yields per tree. The 2-scaffold V had the greatest production in kilograms per acre. Early productivity was related to tree density and pruning severity, not tree size. Training systems had no effect on fruit size.

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T. Auxt Baugher, H.W. Hogmire, A.R. Biggs, S.I. Walter, D.W. Leach, T. Winfield, and G.W. Lightner

Apple packout audits were conducted during 1991 to 1993 to assess effects of five orchard systems (three cultivars, two age groups) on fruit packout and determine if relationships exist between light quality and productivity. Cultivar/rootstock combinations on 1979 T-trellis and central-leader systems had the lowest light levels and relative yields. Trees on either 1979 3-wire trellis, 1986 MIA, or 1985 West Virginia spindle had the highest light transmission, and trees on 1979 or 1985 West Virginia spindle systems had the highest yields. Extra fancy/fancy packouts across systems ranged from 40% to 85%. `Empire', regardless of system, had the highest packouts, and `Golden Delicious' on 1979 or 1986 central leader had the lowest packouts. A regression analysis comparing percentage packout in grades below fancy to percentage full sun indicated that reduced packouts were related to low light conditions. Orchard system influenced the number of fruit downgraded due to color, russet, bruises, bitter pit, cork spot, apple scab, rots, sooty blotch/fly speck, and tufted apple budmoth. Regression analyses comparing defects to field data indicated that bitter pit decreased as yield efficiency increased, and rot and sooty blotch/fly speck incidence were related to low canopy light penetration. Revenue losses were disproportionate to percentage of downgraded fruit because some defects had a greater impact on grade than others. The greatest revenue losses were for russet in `Golden Delicious' on 1986 central leader ($1656.60/acre) and for bitter pit in `Golden Delicious' on 1979 T-trellis ($1067.30/acre). Total losses in returns for individual systems ranged from $453.71/acre for `Empire' on 3-wire trellis to $3145.49/acre for `Golden Delicious' on 1986 central leader. The comparisons of young versus mature system yields and packouts indicate that medium- to high-density vertical or inclined canopy systems are superior to horizontal or low-density vertical freestanding systems. The cost-benefit analyses prescribe areas where management can be changed in existing systems to increase profitability.

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Gary W. Stutte, Tara A. Baugher, Sandra P. Walter, David W. Leach, D. Michael Glenn, and Thomas J. Tworkoski

A study was conducted to quantify the effects of rootstock and training system on C allocation in apple. Dry-matter distribution was determined at harvest in 5-year-old `Golden Delicious' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees on four rootstocks (MM.111 EMLA, M.7a, M.26 EMLA, and M.9 EMLA) and in three training systems (three-wire palmette, free-standing central leader, and nonpruned). Mobilizable carbohydrate content was determined at harvest and leaf fall in trees from the same planting on MM.111 EMLA and M.9 EMLA in all three training systems. Training system effects interacted with rootstock effects in dry weights of branches and of fruit. Nonpruned system shoot and fruit dry weights reflected known rootstock vigor; whereas, pruned system (three-wire and central leader) shoot dry weights were greatest and fruit dry weights were lowest in trees on M.7a. Rootstock affected the partitioning of dry matter between above- and below-ground tree components, with MM.111 EMLA accumulating significantly more dry matter in the root system than trees on the other rootstocks. Trees in the central leader and the three-wire palmette systems partitioned more dry weight into nonbearing 1-year shoots than trees in the nonpruned system. Root starch content at harvest was greater in trees on MM.111 EMLA than on M.9 EMLA, and root sucrose and sorbitol were less in trees on MM.111 EMLA compared to M.9 EMLA. At leaf fall, starch in young roots was equal in trees on both rootstocks, and sorbitol again was lower in trees on MM.111 EMLA. Harvest starch content of roots, shoots, and branches was lower in nonpruned than in pruned trees. At leaf fall, root, shoot, and branch starch content increased in nonpruned and central leader-trained trees but did not increase in three-wire palmette-trained trees.

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David C. Ferree and W. Timothy Rhodus

In 1981, four apple cultivars were established as a low trellis hedgerow on 11.9 or free-standing central leaders on 11.7 at the recommended or half the recommended spacing with the close planted trees either root pruned or hedged. The trellis had a higher trunk area (TCA)/ha (31%), yield/ha (41%) and tree efficiency (19%). `Lawspur Rome Beauty' had the highest TCA/ha, cumulative yield/ha and greatest tendency toward biennial bearing of the 4 cvs. `Smoothee Golden Delicious' trees in the central leader system were less efficient (kg/cm2) than in the trellis system. Hedging increased cumulative yield/ha compared to standard spaced trees with root pruned trees intermediate. Training trees to the trellis increased the density of both spurs and shoots and resulted in a higher leaf area index. Central leader trees of `Smoothee' and `Red Chief' had higher light transmission levels than the trellis, while the trellis trees had higher light levels with `Lawspur'. Return over total cost was negative for years 1-10 for all systems. Cumulative NPV for `Redchief' hedged on central leader equaled `Lawspur' at the standard spacing on trellis and exceeded all other combinations.

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D.C. Elfying

'Empire' (E) and 'Marshall McIntosh' (MM)/'Mark' trees planted in 1986 were trained to the freestanding central leader (CL), central leader with annual extension-shoot heading (HCL), slender spindle (SS) or vertical axis (VA). Support with a full tree stake (SS & VA) had little effect on shoot growth. HCL increased shoot number and mean length. Fewer pruning cuts were made on supported trees, while more were made on HCL trees. Dry weight of prunings 1989-91 was the same for all MM trees, while in E trees, CL and SS had lower pruning weights than HCL and VA. Bloom density was uninfluenced by support or training. Fruit set was greater in 1990 and 1991 on supported E trees, and in 1990 on supported MM trees. Yield was greater on supported systems in 3 out of 4 production years. Total yield after 6 years of age was 26-38% greater for supported trees of both cultivars. Bienniality was reduced about 15% by support in MM trees but unaffected by support or training in E trees. Net total crop value (estimated annual crop value minus annual harvest cost and support cost, if applicable, annual 10% discount rate) in 1991 was approximately $1600 per ha greater for supported E trees and $270 per ha greater for supported MM trees.

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Richard G. Snyder

Production of greenhouse tomatoes, while not new to Mississippi, has increased in the past 4 years to an industry of noteworthy size. This specialized industry in Mississippi has faded in and out of popularity over the years, as new growers have sometimes been stimulated by greenhouse supply companies looking for prospective customers. Often, rumors of incredibly high yields, consistently high demand and price, and minimal problems with pests and culture have encouraged novice growers to start in such a big way as to make it impossible to pay off their debts.

With strong support from the Extension Service and the Experiment Station in Missiippi, the number of grown has increased from a handful to 71, utilizing 224 free-standing or gutter-connected greenhouse bays, occupying 12 acres under plastic. This has placed Mississippi within the top 10 greenhouse vegetable producing states in the U.S. and has helped to build a $1.8 million industry. University support has taken the form of: 1) monthly Vegetable Press Newsletter, 2) annual Greenhouse Tomato Short Course each April, 3) Greenhouse Tomato Handbook (1992). 4) organized Greenhouse Tours. 5) a greenhouse tomato production video now in the planning stage, and 6) excellent support by Plant Pathologists and Entomologists.

To support these growers, most of whom are new to greenhouse tomatoes, a number of culturally based experiments have been performed at the Truck Crop Branch Experiment Station. These have included evaluation of heating systems, media, varieties, biological control, fog cooling, and bumblebee pollination.

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Allen V. Barker

the climate battery may maintain temperatures at about 45 o F, during a cold stretch, a backup heating system likely will be required. The tenth chapter deals with off-site case studies with two four-season, free-standing greenhouses, a geodesic dome

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Tiziano Caruso, Francesco Guarino, Riccardo Lo Bianco, and Francesco Paolo Marra

Over the past 50 years, several planting systems for peach [ Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] orchards have been developed to reach high early yields and improved fruit quality. In the 1980s and 1990s, orchard planting systems were based on high tree