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environmental impacts, including ozone depletion, smog, acidification, eutrophication, carcinogenic or non-carcinogenic human toxicity, respiratory effects, ecotoxicity, and fossil fuel depletion [ U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), 2008 ]. These are

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fossil fuels has played a major role in this increase. Therefore, the GWP of emitted gases is expressed relative to the GWP of CO 2 for a 100-year period (GWP 100 ). The GWP 100 of CO 2 is set as 1, the reference to which other GHGs are compared and

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fossil fuels to transport low K-containing materials to areas where native soil K supplies are low? There are many complex issues that interact to determine long-term sustainability ( Bergstrom et al., 2005 ). Potassium balance Because off-farm sales will

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small compared with CO 2 . CO 2 evolution through such processes as burning fossil fuel has negative impact and CO 2 uptake or sequestration has a positive impact on the atmosphere. Although a relatively small volume of N 2 O is emitted during

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general public. Greenhouse gases (GHGs), primarily CO 2 , N 2 O, and CH 4 , are increasing in the atmosphere and human activity is contributing to that, primarily through the use of fossil fuels [ BSI British Standards, 2011 ; International Panel on

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waste stream into a crop production asset. Fertilizer costs can range from 5% to 10% of total crop production expenses because of the large amount of fossil fuels needed for the manufacture of fertilizer ( Hochmuth and Hanlon, 2010 ). It is possible to

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Landscape mulches are an important component to improving the sustainability of landscape systems. Mulches, particularly organic mulches, can enhance sustainability by reducing chemical inputs and the use of fossil fuels to maintain healthy and

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fossil fuels. At present, countries like the Netherlands and Hungary have significant greenhouse acreage heated during winter using geothermal energy. Artificial heating is more common in many modern greenhouses. The earliest evidence of artificial

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growers in coping with potential water and fossil fuel constraints. The trials have taken place on research centers and commercial orchards in the Columbia River Valley region of central Washington State and the Okanagan Valley of British Columbia

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Carbon dioxide, methane (CH 4 ), and nitrous oxide (N 2 O) are major contributors to the increases in GHG emissions, fueling changes in the earth’s climate. The USEPA(2015) estimates that GHG emissions due to agriculture accounted for 7.6% of

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