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box, rotating agitator blades, 12-V motor, and fan shaped, gravity-fed, row banding applicators). The equipment was evaluated for the application of two CGM formulations (powdered and granulated), three application rates (250, 500, and 750 g·m −2

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, Fairport, NY), S. feltiae (Nemasys; Becker Underwood, Ames, IA), and H. indica (GrubStake-Hi; Integrated BioControl Systems). Table 1 provides specifics on the formulation of the different EPN products used in the study. Table 1. Commercially

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useful for boxed cut flowers or potted plants ( Jones and Edelman, 2013 ). In the last few years, a sprayable formulation of 1-MCP (AFxRD-038; Rohm and Hass, Philadelphia, PA) has been registered for in-orchard use on fruit (apples, pears, and kiwifruit

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One of the major limitations to the application of biological control agents (BCAs) such as Trichoderma species is the development of appropriately formulated products ( Fravel, 2005 ). Although a wide range of formulations of the biofungicide

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Abstract

My speciality is the formulation of agricultural chemicals and my paper therefore deals with the art of developing formulations. Note that I said art, not science, because some of my friends tell me that they consider formulation to be some kind of magic practiced by conjurers and witches. Things really are not that bad. We do in fact rely on the laws of chemistry and biology. But the number of variables that we must pay attention to, and the sometimes conflicting requirements that we must compromise, are so numerous that we often cannot use a systematic or scientific approach to solve our problems, and intuition and experience play a considerable role. I am sure that you, as biologists, have full understanding for this situation.

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Nitrogen applications are essential for producing quality ornamental plants. Nitrogen commonly is applied as nitrate (NO 3 − ) or ammonium (NH 4 + )-N in commercially available soluble and/or controlled-release fertilizer formulations. Ammonium-N is

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( Anonymous, 1989 ; Footprint, 2008 ). Chand and Lembi (1991) , using a wettable powder formulation, indicated 88% dissipation of flurprimidol within 4 weeks of application and that the majority remained in the top 5 cm of sand. Data reported by the initial

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their orchards, but each of these options was costly and had limitations. Because effective sunburn protectants were not available commercially for apples, studies were initiated in my laboratory in 1997 to invent a sprayable formulation that would

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herbicide + mulch combinations and determine which factors significantly affected the control, specifically focusing on herbicide formulation and posttreatment irrigation volumes. Second, we wanted to determine the efficacy derived from mulch or herbicides

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/v) at 400 lb/acre, but the high cost of MI + Pic partially offset yield advantages, resulting in $425/acre less revenue than that obtained with MBr + Pic. The effective rate of application and the most effective formulation (proportion) of both a

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