lived in urban areas ( U.S. Census Bureau, 2012 ). Construction of homes and buildings often leads to a loss of natural vegetation ( Blubaugh et al., 2011 ), which is often replaced with turfgrass systems ( Tallamy, 2007 ). Public policies and local
Sam Marshall, David Orr, Lucy Bradley, and Christopher Moorman
Gerardo H. Nunez, Alisson P. Kovaleski, and Rebecca L. Darnell
-Schobesberger et al., 2008 ), suggesting that this sample population may indeed be particularly uninformed about policies and regulations in the organic foods market. Statements in the risk construct were not significantly different between groups (data not shown
.H. Cromartie, J. Ballenger, N. 2002 America’s changing appetite: Food consumption and spending to 2020 Food Rev. 25 1 2 9 Burlingame, B. Dernini S. 2010 Sustainable Diets and Biodiversity: Directions and Solutions for Policy, Research and Action. Edited from
M.B. Kirkham and B.E. Clothier
out policy. DSIR had three roles: it set policy, it received monies for scientific research that its policy determined, and its scientists provided the research. In the 1980s, critics proclaimed that central government was too large, consumed too many
Gail A. Langellotto and Abha Gupta
; French and Stables, 2003 ). Creating environments where children are encouraged to be physically active and to choose nutrient-dense foods (such as fruit and vegetables) is thus often the focus of interventions that aim to promote healthy BMI and reduce
Consumption and production of organic food has quadrupled since 1990. Certified organic or pesticide-free produce and other foods are common in most grocery chains. Increased consumer demand and concerns about pesticide use has led to mandates for national standards and local implementation. The Organic Horticulture Colloquium addresses organic certification, production, pest management, consumer demand, education, marketing, and economics. Challenges and results in implementing policy and encouraging change will be related from both national and local perspectives. While the “organic movement” was originally focused on food crops, it has evolved to address issues of pesticide use in non-food horticultural crops as well. This colloquium addresses issues of concern to food and non-food agricultural products.
Prem Nath and Sundari Velu
In a world that produces enough food for everyone, about 800 million people in the developing world do not have enough to eat. The important challenge facing agriculture in the new millennium is to eliminate chronic hunger. Safe and better quality food is equally important to ensure that people not only have sufficient energy but also the nutrients necessary for adequate productive lives. In order to release the pressure on cereals as well as to improve human nutrition through consumption of the other nutritious crops, diversification in cropping patterns provides better options, and horticultural crops, including vegetables with their wide adoption and providers of important nutrients, offer promise for the future. In this spirit and in the wake of the present global call for eliminating food and nutritional insecurity, the technologists, entrepreneurs, policy-makers and those interested in agriculture were invited to participate and contribute to fruitful discussion at the International Conference on Vegetables (ICV–2002), which was held 11–14 Nov. 2002 in Bangalore, India. About 700 participants from 37 countries across the globe participated in the conference, and a total of 621 papers were presented. The ICV–2002 addressed 13 theme areas, which included vegetable improvement in production, protection, underutilized vegetables, postharvest management, developmental policies and programs, marketing and trade including WTO policies and programs, and, finally, technical cooperation among developing countries. The salient recommendations of the ICV–2002 will be presented.
Don J. Durzan and M.D. Durzan
Prospects for the establishment of joint-ventured agribusiness in developing countries are a function of international agreements, local risk conditions, business networks, and banking systems that are willing to support the innovative transfer, protection, assessment, and commercialization of biotechnology. The integration of biotechnology will occur only if truly convincing practices emerge that enhance biodiversity and the competitiveness of sustainable production, utilization, and marketing cycles. Integration also depends on agreements on intellectual property rights, plant protection, trade and tariffs, price stabilization, and non-trade-distorting policies. These policies deal with broad issues in research, pest and disease control, environmental quality, germplasm conservation, resource retirement programs, and even with crop and disaster insurance. Measures derived from these policies will apply to novel processes and to organisms that have been genetically engineered and approved for release into the environment. For developing countries, much more attention will have to be paid to biological diversity and sustainable balances among intercropped agriforest and horticultural production systems. Balances should be compatible with regional and local customs and practices before genetically engineered “green goods and services” are introduced in the marketplace. Recombinant DNA technologies are currently better-suited to deal on a “gene-by-gene” basis, with commodity surpluses and material conversions involving more concentrated and industrialized processes than with field plantations of genetically engineered, complex, and long-lived crops that may require considerable adaptive plasticity. In most countries with developing economies, the integration of recombinant DNA technology represents a “special problematique” involving politico- and socioeconomic and environmental factors. Barriers to transfer and integration may involve evolving international agreements, public acceptance, resource over-exploitation, environmental degradation, rapid insect and disease resistance, contaminated water and food supplies, reduced quality of life, labor quality, corruption, crime, farmers' rights, germplasm conservation, and lack of protection of intellectual property, among other factors. Hence, the timing and mode of transferring biotechnology needs considerable impact assessment on a case-by-case basis.
Cengiz Sayin, Robin G. Brumfield, M. Nisa Mencet, and Burhan Ozkan
In the past decade, organic production has become a growing segment of the healthy food market. Organic farming is expanding gradually in many countries, and consumption of organic products is gaining a huge importance in the developed countries, such as the U.S., countries in the European Union (EU), Canada, and Japan. The increase of domestic market demand in developed countries and export potential for developing countries has stimulated organic agricultural production. In this report, we briefly examine the development of the world organic market and examine regulations with regard to production and certification. We also provide a detailed review of the current structure of organic food production and marketing in Turkey, a developing country with advantages to increase organic production. The overall picture of organic products in Turkey seems very positive. The size of the domestic market for organic products is estimated to be $3 to $5 million, with annual growth projected to be about 50% for the next 5 years. Eighty percent of current production in Turkey is export-oriented. The EU has been the main export destination. The positive market outlook will no doubt create a renewed interest in organic products among Turkish farmers and policy makers.
Adel A. Kader
76 COLLOQUIUM 2 (Abstr. 652–655) Global Carrying Capacity—Food and Future World Population Tuesday, 25 July, 8:00 a.m.–1:00 p.m.