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Hazel Y. Wetzstein, Weiguang Yi, Justin A. Porter, and Nadav Ravid

question of whether flower vigor and quality as expressed in differences in flower size and degree of female development influence fruit production in pomegranate. Flower and/or ovary size have been shown to impact final fruit size in a number of crops

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Shuyin Liang, Xuan Wu, and David Byrne

throughout the world. Heat stress in rose causes leaf damage, flower abscission, and decreased flower size and quality which greatly reduce market value. The average daily maximum temperatures 8–14 d before a flower opens affects flower dry weight

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Shuyin Liang, Xuan Wu, and David Byrne

the Northern Hemisphere and have been spread throughout the world ( Krussmann, 1981 ). This widely used ornamental crop has a diversity of plant-growth habits and flower sizes, forms, colors, and fragrances. The value of world rose production was

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Malik G. Al-Ajlouni, Jamal Y. Ayad, and Yahia A. Othman

essential to identify an optimal particle-size range that potentially improves growth and flower quality. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of tuff substrate size on growth and flower quality of two asiatic hybrid lily cultivars using

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Kathleen M. Kelley, Bridget K. Behe, John A. Biernbaum, and Kenneth L. Poff

Two surveys were conducted to determine characteristics important in containerized edible flowers that could be sold in retail outlets. Self-selected participants at Bloomfest at Cobo Hall, Detroit, were assigned to one group that rated the importance of attributes such as color of pansy (Viola ×wittrockiana Gams. `Accord Banner Clear Mixture'), color combinations, container size, and price. Participants assigned to a second group rated color, color combinations, and container size. Flower color was allocated the most points in the purchasing decision (63% for the first group and 95% for the second), with a mixture of all three colors (blue, yellow, and orange) being the most desirable. Responses were subjected to Cluster Analysis (SPSS Inc., Chicago), which resulted in the formation of three distinct groups. The groups were labeled “Likely Buyer” (those who had eaten and purchased edible flowers before and rated characteristics of edible flowers favorably); “Unlikely Consumer” (those who had eaten edible flowers before and had rated characteristics of edible flowers unfavorably); and “Persuadable Garnishers” (those who had not eaten edible flowers before, but were very likely to purchase edible flowers for a meal's garnish).

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K.M. Kelley, B.K. Behe, J.A. Biernbaum, and K.L. Poff

Two surveys were conducted to determine the importance of characteristics of containers of edible flower which could be sold to consumers in retail outlets. Self-selected participants at Bloomfest at Cobo Hall in Detroit, Mich., were assigned to one group that rated the importance of attributes such as edible flower color of Viola × wittrockiana `Accord Banner Clear Mixture', color combinations, container size, and price of the container. Participants assigned to a second group rated color, color combinations, and size. Flower color was allocated the most points in the purchasing decision (63% for the first group and 95% for the second group), with a mixture of all three colors (blue, yellow, and orange), proving to be the most desirable. Responses were subjected to Conjoint Analysis (SPSS Inc., Chicago), which resulted in the formation of three groups of customer segmentation. The groups were labeled “Likely Buyer” who had eaten and purchased edible flowers before and rated characteristics of edible flowers favorably; “Unlikely Consumer” who had eaten edible flowers before and had rated characteristics of edible flowers unfavorably; and “Persuadable Garnishers” who had not eaten edible flowers before, but were very likely to purchase edible flowers for a garnish for a meal.

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Genhua Niu, Royal D. Heins, Arthur C. Cameron, and William H. Carlson

Flower size generally decreases as temperature increases. The objective of this research was to investigate during development when flowers of Campanula carpatica Jacq. `Blue Clips' and `Birch Hybrid' are sensitive to temperature by conducting two temperature-transfer experiments. In the first experiment, plants were grown initially at 20 °C and then transferred at visible bud to 14, 17, 20, 23, or 26 °C until flower. In the second experiment, plants were transferred from 14 to 26 °C or from 26 to 14 °C at 1, 3, or 5 weeks (`Blue Clips') or at 1, 2, or 3 weeks (`Birch Hybrid') after flower induction. Temperature before visible bud had little effect on final flower size for both species. For example, flower diameter of `Blue Clips' was similar among plants grown at constant 14 °C or grown at 20 °C initially and then transferred at visible bud to 14 or 17 °C. Similarly, flower diameter of plants grown at constant 26 °C was similar to those grown at 20 °C initially and then transferred at visible bud to 26 °C. Flower diameter in these species is correlated with the temperature after VB in the 14 to 26 °C and decreases linearly as the temperature after VB increases.

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Hans C. Wien

experiments probed the effect of wider spacing on flower size and yield in 2007 and 2008 and were conducted in a different part of the same field using the same fertility practices and the same cultivars. The trials compared a 9 × 9-inch spacing with four rows

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Schuyler D. Seeley, Hossein Damavandy, J. LaMar Anderson, Richard Renquist, and Nancy W. Callan

Foliar applications of growth regulators (GR) in early autumn induced leaf retention (LR) on peach [Prunu,s persica (L.) Batsch.] and `Montmorency' tart cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) trees. In `Johnson Elberta' peach, the relative effectiveness of GRs on LR was NAA = Promalin (BA + GA4+7) > GA4+7 > GA3 > BA > control, and on leaf detachment pull force (PF) NAA > BA + GA4+7 > GA4+7 = GA3 > BA3 > BA > control. Relative GR-induced chlorophyll (CL) content in retained leaves was BA + GA4+7 > GA4+7 > GA3 > BA > control > NAA. Relative xanthophyll (XN) content of retained leaves was NAA > control > BA > GA3 = GA4+7 = BA + GA4+7. Treating only half of a peach tree with NAA did not affect LR on the untreated side. NAA decreased subsequent bud and flower size in peach. Bud hardiness was enhanced by NAA in `Johnson Elberta' peach but not in `Redhaven' peach or in `Montmorency' tart cherry. NAA increased hardening on both the leafy treated (foliated) and untreated (defoliated) sides of half-treated `Johnson Elberta' trees. Increased endodormancy duration, as measured by GA3 forcing of terminal leaf buds, was proportional to LR. Chemical names used: N-(phenylmethyl)- 1H-purin-6-amine (BA); (1a,2ß,4bß,10ß)-2,4a,7-trihydroxy-l-methyl-8-methylenegibb-3-ene-l,lO-dicarboxylic acid,l,4a-lactone (GA3, GA4+7); l-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA).

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Paul M. Lyrene

The effects of environmental factors, including chilling duration during dormancy and temperature during flower bud expansion, were studied on the following blueberry flower parameters: corolla length, corolla aperture diameter, stigma location relative to the apex of the corolla tube, position of the anthers relative to the stigma and to the apex of the corolla, and style length. Flowers on plants that were chilled over 1400 hours differed little from those that received only 310 chill units. Flowers that developed under warmer temperatures had significantly wider corolla apertures. In one experiment but not the other, corolla length and style length increased under warmer temperatures. For nearly every parameter in each of three experiments, there were significant environment × clone interactions. Overall, however, it appeared that neither lack of chill units during dormancy nor warm temperatures during flower development changed flower morphology enough to affect fruit set.