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Ioannis Tsirogiannis, Nikolaos Katsoulas, and Constantinos Kittas

frequency. z Cut flower yield and quality. As can be seen in Figure 2 , a fluctuation on the number of harvested flowers was observed during the period of measurements with the number of harvested flowers being most of the time higher for the

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Nicholas J. Flax, Christopher J. Currey, James A. Schrader, David Grewell, and William R. Graves

(control) container at five commercial nurseries in the upper-midwestern United States through responses to a questionnaire administered after plants were harvested. Growers rated plant shoots (stems, leaves, and flowers), roots, and quality of containers

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Sabine R. Green, Geno A. Picchioni, Leigh W. Murray, and Marisa M. Wall

., 2005 ; JongGoo and van Iersel, 2002 ). Thus, these species have good potential as dried flowers in hot, dry, southern New Mexico, the soils of which are frequently affected by high salinity. We found no scientific data on yield and flower stem quality

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Malik G. Al-Ajlouni, Jamal Y. Ayad, and Yahia A. Othman

essential to identify an optimal particle-size range that potentially improves growth and flower quality. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of tuff substrate size on growth and flower quality of two asiatic hybrid lily cultivars using

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W. Garrett Owen, Alyssa Hilligoss, and Roberto G. Lopez

weather phenomena (excessive rain, hail, and wind) ( Lamont, 2009 ; Wien, 2009 ). Therefore, these relatively calm and protected growing conditions maintain flower quality while also reducing flower disfiguring from disease ( Lamont, 2009 ; Wien, 2009

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Raymond A. Cloyd and Clifford S. Sadof

Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the efficacy of two granular systemic insecticides, acephate (Pinpoint 15G) and imidacloprid (Marathon 1G), against western flower thrips (Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande) on Transvaal daisy (Gerbera jamesonii H. Bolus ex. Hook. f). These studies were arranged in a randomized complete-block design with four blocks and four treatments per block. Two rates of acephate (0.75 g/16.5-cm pot and 1.0 g/16.5-cm pot) and one rate of imidacloprid (1.3 g/16.5-cm pot) were used in two studies. Plants were artificially inoculated with five adult western flower thrips at the prebloom stage. Plants were evaluated each week for flower quality (1 = complete injury or flower distortion to 5 = no injury), thrips density per flower, and number of plants flowering in each plot. Both studies showed that the acephate treated plants had the best flower quality, lowest numbers of thrips, and greatest number of plants flowering compared to imidacloprid and the check. These studies demonstrate that granulated acephate exhibits some activity in flower tissue and may assist growers in managing western flower thrips in floricultural crops.

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Kathleen M. Kelley, Bridget K. Behe, John A. Biernbaum, and Kenneth L. Poff

Two identical surveys were conducted with separate samples to determine consumer perceptions of the quality of five edible flower species. Participants were either members of a class that reviewed the history and uses of edible flowers at an annual, 1-day event (Garden Days) or Michigan Master Gardeners who attended a similar class. Participants were shown a randomized series of projected photographic slides of five edible flower species and asked to indicate whether they found the flower quality acceptable. The slides depicted a range of ratings of mechanical damage, insect damage, or flower senescence on a Likert reference scale (1 through 5) developed by the researchers. A flower rated 5 was flawless, while a flower rated 1 had substantial damage. Nearly one-half of all participants had eaten edible flowers before the study, and 57% to 59% had grown them for their own consumption, indicating many individuals had previous experience. Both samples rated flower quality equally and found pansy (Viola ×wittrockiana `Accord Banner Clear Mixture'), tuberous begonia (Begonia ×tuberhybrida `Ornament Pink'), and viola (Viola tricolor `Helen Mount') acceptable from stage 5 to 3. Both groups found the nasturtium (Tropaeolum majus `Jewel Mix') flowers acceptable at only rating 5. Garden Days participants rated borage (Borago officinalis) acceptable from ratings 5 to 3, while the Master Gardeners rated their acceptability from only 5 to 4. Participants also rated flower color (yellow, orange, and blue) as equally acceptable.

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Alan Stevens, Karen Gast, and Mary L. Albrecht

The introduction of an alternative crop invokes a myriad of unknowns. Cyclic production patterns need to be described so that staggered plantings can be programmed to provide continual product supply to the marketplace. The impact of time on flower quality as well as yield is critical. Zinnia elegans `State Fair Mix' (tall and large flowered) and `Pumila Mix' (smaller flowered) were field-produced for study. Flower diameters of Z. elegans `State Fair' and Pumila displayed similar patterns; increasing from first harvest to week 5, decreasing until weeks 8/9 and then beginning to increase in week 10. Flower diameters were smaller at weeks 8/9 than at initial harvest. The number of stems harvested (per sq. meter) of Pumila decreased from initial harvest (13.5) until weeks 5-7 (7.5) and then increased dramatically to week 10 (38). Stem numbers of State Fair decreased from initial harvest (4.9) until weeks 4/5 (1.6) and then increased through week 9 (6.8).

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Nirit Bernstein, Marina Ioffe, Moshe Bruner, Yair Nishri, Gideon Luria, Irit Dori, Eli Matan, Sonia Philosoph-Hadas, Nakdimon Umiel, and Amir Hagiladi

Agriculture and the Flower Board in Israel, project No 306 0487-03. We thank David Shmuel and Liana Ben Yunes for skilled technical assistance, and Yael Skotelsky for advice concerning plant protection issues.

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Carlos Miranda, Luis G. Santesteban, and José B. Royo

The apical or king (K) flower in the apple (Malus ×domestica L. Borkh.) cluster usually develops and blooms first and also has a greater sink potential. For this reason, resources are primarily used by the K fruit, and this is also one of the reasons why most thinning practices tend to favor K fruit set. However, it is not always possible to retain the K flower and remove the lateral ones. This study was undertaken to determine if the removal of the most developed flowers in the cluster influences yield or quality compared to that obtained in a whole cluster. The treatments were made in `Golden Delicious' and `Royal Gala' apple cultivars, within a wide range of flower densities for each cultivar. The factor tested was the intensity of flower removal (FRI); the treatments consisted in removing one, two, or three flowers in each cluster. Flower density was used as a covariate in an analysis of covariance to account for differences in flower densities in response to FRI treatments. In all experiments the covariate was not significant; therefore FRI effect was not affected by flower density. `Golden Delicious' and `Royal Gala' had similar responses to flower removal, so that when at least three flowers in a cluster remained, fruit set and cluster yield were similar to whole clusters. Only when two or fewer poorly developed flowers remained after FRI treatments, yield was reduced by as much as 25%. Fruit from FRI clusters were even heavier than those from whole clusters, due to reduced competition among the fruit, so that the growth potential of fruit from the first and second lateral flowers was similar to clusters with K fruit, in clusters where the K flower had been removed.