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, the 10- to 15-month-old phalaenopsis ‘V3’ started to spike between 31.0 and 43.5 d, and visible flower bud and first flower opening was between 79.3 to 89.8 d and 106.5 to 119.3 d, respectively ( Table 4 ). For the 16- to 20-month-old plants, time to

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marked with plastic labels and fruits at early stage of development were observed. Flower buds were protected with paper bags before anthesis for the estimative of self-fertility toward controlled self-pollination. At the opening time, flowers were

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with mesh size of 1.5–2 mm. Since 2013, pollination bags of 45 × 50 cm with opening of 0.5–0.8 mm in length replaced the seed bags in the bagging experiments because they could block all insects (Middletown, DE). All opened flowers were removed from

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calculated as the number of days until banners or tepals abscised, when more than 50% in-rolled, or when more than 50% were discolored. The dutch iris flower opening ( Fig. 1 ) was rated as failed to open, partially open, or fully open. The tulip stem length

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cultivar dependent. On a test with 38 cut rose cultivars, 1 μL·L −1 exogenous ethylene shortened vase life of 27 cultivars, impeded the rate of flower opening in six cultivars, and had no effect on five cultivars ( Macnish et al., 2010 ). RueySong et al

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time of sepal and petal opening and displaying a visible sigma was recorded as initial bloom. Full bloom was recorded when petal opening reached the widest diameter. The time of flower closure on the next day with an invisible stigma was recorded as

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Abstract

Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) flower and pistil weight at anthesis decreased at late bloom times. Fruit from early-opening flowers remained larger through harvest and developed higher soluble solids and color than fruit from flowers than opened later. Time of anthesis was delayed and fruit color and soluble solids decreased linearly as flower or fruit location progressed basipetally on one- and 2-year-old wood.

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The cut Lilium oriental hybrid `Casablanca' was pulsed with chitosan (MW = 5000–10,000), grapefruit seed extract (GFSE), GA, and sucrose and enclosed with a polyethylene (PE) film of different perforations before packing into a cardboard box. Simulated transport (ST) was conducted by storing plants at 22 °C for 3 days, and the flower opening and weight loss during ST as well as post-ST floral longevity were evaluated. Pulsing with 600 ppm chitosan effectively reduced open flower percentage and weight loss during ST by 6.5% and 36%, respectively. The same concentration of chitosan, however, slightly decreased post-ST floral longevity. Adding 8% sucrose and 100 ppm GA enhanced chitosan effects. In contrast to chitosan, 500 ppm GFSE increased flower opening during ST. Enclosing plants with perforated PE film significantly reduced weight loss during ST, but increased flower opening although no ethylene accumulation over 0.08 ppm was detected in enclosed atmosphere. The opening of flowers during ST also increased in proportion to the time delay between harvest and pulsing.

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Abstract

Cranberry flower development was studied in the greenhouse on uprights thinned to a single flower. Flowers started opening each hour of the day. The interval from petal separation to fully open flowers varied from 2 to 12 hr with 80% of the flowers fully open within 6 hr. Elongation of the style and emergence of the stigma through the anther ring occurred on 94% of the flowers during the 24 - 48 hr period after the petals were fully reflexed. The stigma was pollen receptive at the time of petal separation. The pollen tube had traversed the style 48 hr after pollination in 37% of the flowers examined. Removal of the style 72 hr after pollination no longer prevented fruit development.

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Abstract

Rhythmic pulses of irreversible petal expansion in rose (Rosa hybrida L. ‘Sonia’) petals cause diurnal changes in the rate of flower opening. Time-lapse cinematography revealed a transient increase in the rate of rose flower opening that commenced shortly before the onset of a light period and lasted for a few hours. Petal expansion, which occurred sequentially from the outer to the innermost whorl, involved rhythmic increases in fresh and dry weights. The amount of expansion was greatest in the distal portion of each petal and least near the petal base. Periods of rapid expansion were accompanied by decreases in starch and increases in soluble sugars in the petals, but the total carbohydrate content of the petals remained constant during a light–dark cycle. During expansion, the osmotic potential of the outer petal increased from −790 to −690 kPa. Starch hydrolysis during petal growth appears to be important for maintenance of cell size, but it is not the factor controlling cell expansion.

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