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Jessica D. Lubell and Mark H. Brand

Elepidote rhododendrons are important landscape plants because of showy flowers and bold evergreen foliage. The most common flower colors are lavender, pink, and white, but red flower color is highly sought after. Only some elepidote rhododendrons

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Andrea Quintana, Rosanna Freyre, Thomas M. Davis, and Robert J. Griesbach

cultivars of Anagallis in the ‘Wildcat’™ series with blue, orange, dark orange, and red flower colors. Genes involved in the anthocyanin pathway that are responsible for flower color variation have been widely studied, mostly in Petunia and

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Rosanna Freyre, Chad Uzdevenes, Liwei Gu, and Kenneth H. Quesenberry

carotenoid pigments and are inferred to serve to attract pollinators ( Davies, 2004 ). Flavonoids are the most common flower color pigment, and the predominant flavonoid pigments are the anthocyanins. Anthocyanins are composed of an anthocyanidin and sugar

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Jason D. Lattier and Ryan N. Contreras

winterhardiness, range of flower colors, and unique flower phenotypes, including single-flowered and double-flowered forms ( Contreras and Lattier, 2014 ). Breeders have noted the potential for improvement in althea due to their range of flower color and form and

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Jessica G. Barb, Dennis J. Werner, and Robert J. Griesbach

Flavonoids, carotenoids, and betalains are three classes of pigments that produce flower color in plants. Of these pigments, flavonoids are the most abundant and responsible for a broad range of flower colors, including pale yellow, ivory, pink

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Xun Chen, Nai-xin Liu, Li-juan Fan, Yu Du, and Ling Wang

individual plants and planted in a new plot. After several years of propagation, field performance was observed from 2015 to 2017. The flower color and shape were stable and consistent. A new cultivar name was assigned as Zi Meiren and authorized by the

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Chengyan Yue and Bridget K. Behe

, mood, social behavior, and even immediate and long-term memory. Flower color is a primary product attribute for combination planters ( Mason et al., 2008 ), edible flowers ( Kelley et al., 2001 , 2002 ), geraniums ( Behe et al., 1999 ), and

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Hiroaki Ito, Takahiro Hayashi, Masaki Hashimoto, Katsuro Miyagawa, Saori Nakamura, Youichi Mizuta, and Susumu Yazawa

several years. However, preserved flowers do not retain their natural color. Flowers are artificially stained by soaking in polyethylene glycol with synthetic dyes. It is difficult to stain sepals, stems, and leaves separately from petals, thus multicolor

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Meredith R. Blumthal, L. Art Spomer, Daniel F. Warnock, and Raymond A. Cloyd

California at Davis supplied western flower thrips. This research was made possible by a grant from the UIUC Campus Research Board (RES BRD CLOYD R 1-2-68037) awarded to Raymond A. Cloyd and Daniel F. Warnock. We also thank Jack Juvik, Department of Natural

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Ninghang Wang, Chao Zhang, Sainan Bian, Pengjie Chang, Lingjuan Xuan, Lijie Fan, Qin Yu, Zhigao Liu, Cuihua Gu, Shouzhou Zhang, Yaling Wang, and Yamei Shen

Magnolia is an original genus belonging to Magnoliaceae and has a long history of cultivation in China given its beauty and fragrance. Therefore, Magnolia has been widely used in garden landscapes for its high ornamental value. Flower color is