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winter produce additional fruits the following summer from basal nodes on 2-year-old canes, termed “floricanes.” The fruiting cycle repeats as new primocanes grow and produce a second crop of fruit in the autumn. Managing plants to produce fruit on both

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Floricane-fruiting blackberry do not produce fruit in the Northern Great Plains region of the United States unless the primocanes are protected by some method such as laying canes parallel to the ground using a rotating cross-arm system and

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some erect-type blackberries by softwood cuttings and root pieces appear feasible ( Busby and Himelrick, 1999 ; Thompson et al., 2004 ; Zimmerman et al., 1980 ). Propagation of blackberry by hardwood or floricane stem cuttings has been reported, but

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practice during which current-year canes of primocane-fruiting cultivars are retained over winter so that a second crop is produced on floricanes the following summer. In short-season regions, double-cropping of in-ground plants has been shown to increase

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. Each trial contained primocane-fruiting cultivars (Autumn Britten, Caroline, Chinook, Heritage) and floricane-fruiting cultivars (Canby, Encore, Heritage, Nova). Plots were single, 12-ft-long rows. Cultivars were replicated three times in a randomized

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-fruiting cultivars such as ‘Prime-Jim ® ’, ‘Prime-Jan ® ’, ‘Prime-Ark 45 ® ’, and ‘Prime-Ark ® Traveler’ ( Clark and Perkins-Veazie, 2011 ; Clark and Salgado, 2016 ; Clark et al., 2005 ). Blackberries typically produce fruit on the second-year canes (floricanes

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Service, 2020 ). Despite the scale and significance of this industry, increasing costs and decreasing availability of labor are compromising its economic viability. Floricane red raspberry production is particularly labor intensive, with annual selective

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floricane-fruiting cultivars are vegetative in their first year of growth. In their second year, when they are called floricanes, they flower, fruit, and then senesce. In trailing types, primocanes are not self-supporting and are trained along the ground

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and photosynthesis ( Castaño et al., 2008 ). It is a nutrient used in large quantities, especially in situations of high productivity. Depending on the cultivar and weed management strategy, nutrient loss from the fruit and floricanes may vary between

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