considering production of floral crops in high tunnels, the emphasis is on flowering plants grown for cut flowers, rather than other categories of floriculture products such as bedding plants, potted flowering plants, and foliage plants that are normally grown
H. Chris Wien
Tory Schmidt, Don C. Elfving, James R. McFerson, and Matthew D. Whiting
crop loads, results that do little to clarify the role of gibberellins in floral initiation in apple. If one presumes that a tree with a light crop has a different hormone profile than one with a heavy crop, then it is reasonable to expect that the
Gregory A. Lang and Jiaxun Tao
We have previously demonstrated that a protein of ∼62 kD decreases in response to temperature during the final stages of chilling unit accumulation in dormant peach flower buds (Lang and Tao, 1991, HortSci. 26:733). To further examine proteins that potentially may be associated with endodormancy, floral buds, spurs, and/or shoots were collected during winter from `Anna' apple, various blueberry cultivars, `MidSouth' grape, `20th Century' pear, `Hawthorne' peach, and `Santa Rosa' plum. Soluble proteins were extracted and analyzed by one-dimensional SDS-PAGE. A major protein of ∼62 kD was present in plum, and lesser amounts of one or two similar proteins were found in blueberry, but not in apple or grape. The 62 kD peach protein originally found in buds was also present, in lesser proportions, in peach shoot xylem and phloem tissues, but not in petioles or seeds. Apple exhibited a major protein band at ca. 31 kD that may be a storage protein. The similarities and disparities in protein profiles between fruit crops, as well as changes that occur during winter, will be discussed with respect to dormancy, cold hardiness, and storage compounds.
Holly A. Johnson*, Steven A. Weinbaum, and Theodore M. DeJong
The effects of low and high crop loads in 2002 on floral development (Summer 2002), pistil size at anthesis (Spring 2003), and subsequent season fruit size at maturity (Summer 2003) were studied. Trees were all thinned to the same crop load in 2003. Three peach cultivars (Elegant Lady, O'Henry and Fairtime) with different ripening times (mid-July, mid-August, and early-September, respectively) were used to assess the effects of current season crop on floral development for the subsequent season. Based on previous literature, we reasoned that the maximum competition for carbohydrates between maturing fruit and developing buds is likely to occur at fruit maturity, especially under heavy crop loads. In 2003, individual fruit were harvested and weighed at maturity. In all three cultivars, a heavy crop load reduced the percentage of floral buds initiated and delayed floral differentiation. A heavy crop load also reduced pistil size at anthesis and fruit size at maturity in the subsequent season. These data support the practice of vigorous pruning to annually renew fruiting wood in peach to minimize the influence of crop in the previous season on the subsequent season's fruit and maintain large fruit sizes.
Tammy L. Everett and Paul V. Nelson
Five common sources of perlite used in the North American horticultural industry were tested for their release of fluoride during five successive teachings with pH 5.2 sodium phosphate buffer (1 cc perlite/ml buffer). Soluble fluoride in the first leachate ranged from 0.05 to 0.8 mg/l and in the fifth leachate from 0.01 to 0.18 mg/l. Lilium Asiatic hybrids `Pixie Grange' and `Sunray', Chlorophytum comosum (Thumb.) Jacques `Variegatum', and Gibasis pellucida (Martens & Gal.) D. Hunt `Bridal Veil' were. grown in sphagnum peat moss plus perlite substrates ranging up to 50% perlite and at substrate pH levels from 4.6 to 7.0. No fluoride toxicity occurred in these crops in any treatments. The precaution against the use of perlite in substrates used for growing fluoride sensitive crops needs to be reconsidered.
Millie S. Williams, Terri W. Starman, and James E. Faust
The effect of increasing temperatures on the duration of postharvest flower development was determined for three specialty crop species: marguerite (Argyranthemum frutescens Webb ex Schultz-Bip.) `Butterfly' and `Sugar Baby'; swan river daisy (Brachycome hybrid Cass.) `Ultra'; and bacopa (Sutera cordata Roth.) `Snowflake'. Plants were grown in a greenhouse at 18 °C (65 °F) until flowering, and then transferred into a phytotron to determine heat tolerance. Plants were stored for 8 weeks at constant temperatures of 18, 23, 28, and 33 °C (65, 73, 82, and 91 °F) for 2-week intervals. Flower bud and flower number were recorded weekly. Sutera cordata `Snowflake' and B. hybrid `Ultra' had the greatest flower number at the 23 °C temperature, decreasing in the 28 °C environment. Argyranthemum frutescens `Butterfly' and `Sugar Baby' had greatest flower number at 28 °C, but flowers were of lower quality thanat 23 °C. Flower development of all cultivars ceased at 33 °C, at the end of 8 weeks at increasing temperatures, but when plants were returned to the 18 °C production greenhouse, flower development resumed. High temperatures (28 °C) reduce the postharvest performance of S. cordata, B. hybrid, and A. frutescens plants grown in hanging baskets; therefore, these species should be marketed as spring-flowering products since summer performance may be unsatisfactory in warm climates.
Alice Le Duc and Mary Lewnes Albrecht
Don C. Wilkerson and Tony M. Garza
A survey of five different waste water treatment plants was conducted to identify potential variability in water quality factors. Salinity, pH, and alkalinity varied widely between sites. Mineral content did not differ significantly between sites. Syngonium spp. were subirrigated with four different combinations of treated waste water (TWW) and reverse osmosis (RO) water. Weekly measurements of EC and pH were taken and final height, width, and quality ratings were recorded. Based on these results, a 1 TWW: 1 RO water combination was then used to evaluate four different soluble fertility regimes. Salinity was the most limiting factor in the use of TWW on Syngonium spp. Growth and quality decreased as the percentage of treated waste water increased in each treatment combination. Salable plants were produced using a 1 TWW: 1 RO water combination and 100 ppm (N) fertilizer.
Y. Manakasem and P.B. Goodwin
Field surveys were conducted on cultivated strawberries (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) to determine the time of flower initiation and its relation to maximum and minimum temperatures and daylength. Stereomicroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were compared. Flower initiation in `Torrey' strawberry was more dependent on minimum temperature than on daylength or maximum temperature. Flower initiation in the day-neutral `Aptos' occurred regardless of daylength or temperature during sampling. For the study of flower initiation and inflorescence development, SEM gave more detail than stereomicroscopy.
Nicholas P. Howard, Dennis Stimart, Natalia de Leon, Michael J. Havey, and William Martin
has the potential to greatly increase the appeal of any floriculture crop, including impatiens. Although an attractive floral display is a primary goal of breeding in many ornamental crops, research on floral longevity has focused primarily on