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Huicong Wang and Lailiang Cheng

content), soluble solids concentration (SSC), flesh firmness, and the rate of ethylene evolution are often measured in addition to skin color to indicate the maturity stage of apple for making decisions on harvest time. N supply does not necessarily affect

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C.B. Watkins and F.W. Liu

) , in which affected tissues remain firm and juicy and the disorder is distinct from senescent breakdown. This flesh browning is assumed to be a chilling injury (CI) ( Snowden, 1990 ). In ‘Empire’ apples, the disorder typically becomes apparent in May

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Jinwook Lee, James P. Mattheis, and David R. Rudell

incidence of stem-end cracking ( Byers, 1998 ). ‘Gala’ apples can also develop flesh breakdown during cold storage in air or a controlled atmosphere (CA) ( Argenta et al., 2006 ; Johnson, 2000 ; Stow and Genge, 2000 ). CA storage CO 2 content (0, 1, or 5

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Jinwook Lee, James P. Mattheis, and David R. Rudell

). ‘Royal Gala’ apples are also susceptible to the development of flesh breakdown during and after cold storage ( Lee et al., 2013 ). However, flesh breakdown development can be delayed following fruit exposure to 1-MCP ( Lee et al., 2013 ). Nonetheless, 1

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Jinwook Lee, James P. Mattheis, and David R. Rudell

treated fruit may be associated with reduced fresh weight loss and ripening during cold storage ( Bai et al., 2005 ; Fan et al., 1999 ). The incidence of ‘Royal Gala’ flesh breakdown increases with increased fruit size but flesh breakdown severity is

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Celia M. Cantín, Carlos H. Crisosto, and Kevin R. Day

humidity (RH)] may delay the softening process, but may also lead to the development of storage disorders. Storage disorder symptoms include flesh browning, gel breakdown, mealiness, flesh translucency, red pigment accumulation (bleeding), overripening, and

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Christopher B. Watkins and Jacqueline F. Nock

to a number of physiological disorders including bitter pit, soft scald, soggy breakdown, low temperature breakdown, and senescent breakdown ( DeEll and Ehsani-Moghaddam, 2010 ; DeLong et al., 2006 ; Moran et al., 2009 ; Rosenberger et al., 2004

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Jennifer R. DeEll and Behrouz Ehsani-Moghaddam

disorder, which is rarely mentioned in the literature. The apple flesh develops moist, soft brown spongy tissue, which can form as complete rings in severe cases ( Watkins et al., 2004 ). To reduce the incidence of soft scald and soggy breakdown, it is

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Myong-Dong Cho, Yong-Koo Kim, and Hee-Seung Park

`Yumyeong' peach has the desirable characteristics of long shelf-life and specific non-melting nature with a long harvest period. However, some fruits harvested too late show fruit pithiness symptoms or internal breakdown. This study was conducted to analyze the differences between fruit flesh pithiness and internal breakdown symptoms and to find out the source of flesh pithiness in `Yumyeong' peach. The rate of flesh pithiness was higher in fruit harvested late in the season. Sugar and malic acid contents showed no differences between the normal and flesh pithiness fruits, but the acidity was significantly lower and was affected by low citric acid content in flesh pithiness fruit. In flesh pithiness fruits, calcium contents were low both in skin and flesh. Occurrence of flesh pithiness fruits was high in the years with low precipitation and high temperature for 2 months before harvest. In observations on morphological characteristics, the parts showing flesh pithiness consisted of smaller cells than the normal parts. Tonoplasts disintegrated and the number of dead cells was high in internal breakdown fruits, while the tonoplasts were intact, with contracted vacuoles, in flesh pithiness fruits. Tylosises were observed in vascular tissues around the flesh pithiness; therefore, it was assumed that those tylosises restrict flesh tissue development, resulting in flesh pithiness. Other varieties (`Fantasia', `Wolmi' and `Hakuto') also showed tylosis, and smaller cells were observed in the flesh tissue of these cultivars, indicating abnormal growth of the flesh part. These results suggest the possibility of the occurrence of pithiness-like symptoms in other peach varieties.

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Jennifer R. DeEll, Jennifer T. Ayres, and Dennis P. Murr

; Fan et al., 1999b ; Moran, 2006 ; Rupasinghe et al., 2000 ; Watkins et al., 2000 ), as is peel greasiness ( Fan et al., 1999b ; Watkins and Nock, 2005 ) and senescent breakdown ( DeLong et al., 2004 ; Watkins et al., 2000 ). There is often no