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Peter B. Ojong, Victor Njiti, Zibao Guo, Ming Gao, Samuel Besong, and Sandra L. Barnes

Flavonoids are a group of low–molecular-weight polyphenolic compounds. There are more than 6000 naturally occurring flavonoids, many of which are common in higher plants ( Harborne and Williams, 2000 ). The basic structure of flavonoids consists

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Kai-Xiang Li, Kai Liu, Yingying Chen, Xiaolu Huang, Wenhui Liang, Baocai Li, Yingbai Shen, and Haiying Liang

primarily produced in leaves, among which flavonoids constitute a class of important compounds in herbal medicine ( Guo et al., 2020 ). Flavonoids are the major active secondary metabolites in the leaves of L. polystachyus ( Li et al., 2008 ). The many

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Gary W. Stutte, Ignacio Eraso, and Agnes M. Rimando

species are rich in physiologically active flavonoids that have a wide spectrum of pharmacological activity. The medicinally significant part of the plant is species dependent. Leaf extracts of Scutellaria barbata , also known as “Ban Zhi Lian

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Yanjie Wang, Yeqing Chen, Man Yuan, Zeyun Xue, Qijiang Jin, and Yingchun Xu

understanding genetic mechanisms of its petal coloration is a key to successful breeding. Flower coloration is due to the accumulation of pigments within epidermal cells, including flavonoids, which include chalcones, anthoxanthins (flavones and flavonols), and

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Ninghang Wang, Chao Zhang, Sainan Bian, Pengjie Chang, Lingjuan Xuan, Lijie Fan, Qin Yu, Zhigao Liu, Cuihua Gu, Shouzhou Zhang, Yaling Wang, and Yamei Shen

colors has become one of the main research directions of Magnolia specialists. Flavonoids are secondary metabolites of water-soluble aromatics, with a series of two benzene rings connected by a central three-carbon chain, C6-C3-C6 ( Zhao and Tao, 2015

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Zengqiang Ma, Shishang Li, Meijun Zhang, Shihao Jiang, and Yulan Xiao

Okinawa, has been used for hypertension, lung disease, and liver disease and underdeveloped children as a folk remedy ( Kan, 1986 ). One of the most active components in Anoectochilus was flavonoid ( Takatsuki et al., 1992 ). Many of flavonoid

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Ayse Tascan, Jeff Adelberg, Mevlut Tascan, Agnes Rimando, Nirmal Joshee, and Anand K. Yadav

,” which describes the shape of the calyx at the base of flowers, which resembles miniature medieval helmets ( Joshee et al., 2002 ). Scutellaria lateriflora is native to North America, has flavonoid-rich root, and has been used as an antidepressant

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Ambani R. Mudau, Puffy Soundy, and Fhatuwani N. Mudau

-Hidalgo et al., 2010 ). Baby spinach is considered to contain relatively high amounts of carotenoids ( Bergquist et al., 2006 ), flavonoids, and phenolic acids ( Fallovo et al., 2009 ). These biological compounds are reported to reduce chronic diseases, viz

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Justin D. Butcher, Kevin M. Crosby, Kil Sun Yoo, Bhimanagouda S. Patil, A.M.H. Ibrahim, Daniel I. Leskovar, and John L. Jifon

-carotene content as in TAM Mild Habanero (TMH) ( Crosby et al., 2005 ). Because peppers can contain both capsaicinoids (capsaicin and DHC) and flavonoids (quercetin and luteolin), they provide a good model for examining the potential health benefits of these

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Peter J. Mes, Peter Boches, James R. Myers, and Robert Durst

, stem, and fruit tissue have the capacity for plastid development ( Kendrick et al., 1994 ). Anthocyanins are the result of the flavonoid pathway, which also produces flavonoids and flavonols at higher points in the pathway. Regulation of the pathway