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A flat bed scanner can be used as a high-resolution digital camera with close-up capabitlities for photographing plant material such as leaves, flowers, and plant pests. The scanner is very useful as a diagnostic and instructional tool that is more portable and less expensive than a camera and dissecting microscope. The quality of the images can be very good and can be enhanced in post-production using image editing software. The main disadvantage is the shallow depth of field, which requires the object be on a single plane.

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Early seedling growth rate can be used to estimate seed vigor for small-seeded vegetable and flower seeds. However, hand measurement of small seedlings is tedious and difficult to reproduce among analysts. Computer-aided analysis digital images of seedlings should improve accuracy and reproducibility. A flat-bed scanner fitted with base and top lighting provided high resolution images of even small-seeded species like petunia [Petunia ×hybrida `Blue Picotee' (Hort) Vilm.] and lisianthus [Eustoma grandiflorum `Mariachi Pure White' (Raf.) Shinn]. Uniform lighting was provided and images were captured and analyzed in less than 2 minutes. A clear, cellulose film was used as the germination substrate in petri dish germination assays to facilitate capturing images with a flat-bed scanner. The transparent medium permitted seedlings to be imaged without removal from the petri dish and also allowed for repeated measures of the same seedlings in order to calculate growth rate. Six species evaluated in this study included cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L., var. Botrytis), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. `New Yorker'), pepper (Capsicum annuum L. `North Star'), impatiens [Impatiens walleriana Hook. f. `Impact Lavender'], vinca [Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don. `Little Bright Eye'], and marigold (Tagetes patula L. `Little Devil Flame'). For germination and early seedling growth, the cellulose film compared favorably with other standard germination media (blue blotter and germination paper) for five of the six species tested. Computer analysis of seedling length was possible for all six species and was statistically similar to hand measurements averaged for three analysts.

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or at initial imbibition for petunia, dishes were placed on a HP Scanjet 5370 C flat-bed scanner with transparency adapter (Hewlett Packard, Palo Alto, Calif.) inside the growth chamber. The flat-bed scanner was interfaced with a personal computer

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Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were used to characterize 20 sweetpotato genotypes and to assign paternity for offspring from crosses among them. The PCR amplifications were performed with each of the sweetpotato genotypes and primers flanking a SSR loci previously characterized with the varieties Beauregard and Excel and 20 offspring from a cross among them. The PCR reaction products were separated in nondenaturing 12% acrylamide gels run at 25 V·cm–1 for 5 hours, and DNA fragments were visualized with silver staining. Gels were scanned on a flat bed scanner and analyzed using the Pro-RFLP software package. Three primer pairs were sufficient to produce an allelic profile capable of differentiating the 20 genotypes from each other. More than seven alleles/loci were found using each of the three primer pairs assayed. Occasionally primers produced allelic products clearly localized in two or three regions of the gel. These multiple loci segregated independently in a diploid fashion. This evidence suggests that there is not total homology among the three sweetpotato genomes.

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Standardized seed vigor tests must be developed for greenhouse-grown flower species. Current vigor tests used to evaluate large-seeded agronomic crops are generally not useful for evaluating smaller-seeded flower species. One alternative is to use radicle length in seedlings grown under controlled environments as an indicator of seed vigor. For that purpose, a seed vigor test was developed that uses digital images taken using a flat bed scanner to measure radicle length in small-seeded flower species. A novel, cellulose substrate was used for germinating seeds. It provided similar moisture-holding properties to standard germination blotters used by commercial seed analysts, but is clear. This has allowed for quick image acquisition without removing seedlings from the petri dish. Correlations were made between seedling growth (radicle length, total seedling length, and total seedling area) with other vigor tests (saturated salts accelerated aging) and greenhouse plug flat emergence. For several seed lots of impatiens that varied in initial seed quality, radicle length after 4 days showed good correlations (>R 2 = 0.79) with other measures of seed vigor for describing seed quality. This system is an improvement over other attempts to use computer-aided assessment of digital images because it provides digital images that do not vary due to external lighting; it uses software that can evaluate radicle length in a petri dish assay that does not require a slant-board for straight radicle growth; it relies on standard germination technics used by every seed lab; it uses a clear substrate to replace the opaque blotter to allow digital images to be taken within the petri dish; and accurate measurements of seedling parts is performed in under 2 min per petri dish.

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digital image analysis tool, Color Test (CT), as part of the TA software application ( Brewer et al., 2006 ). The use of flat-bed scanners to acquire data has been reported ( Kleeberger and Moser, 2002 ; Kwack et al., 2005 ; Shahin and Symons, 2001

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study design. In the experiment irrigated via subirrigation, 50-cell propagation flats were cut to create 12-cell units (three cells by four cells), each of which was placed in its own subirrigation tray consisting of a 20- × 20-cm disposable aluminum

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were cut along a latitudinal axis. Half of each fruit was placed on a flat-bed scanner and scanned to create a single digital image with multiple fruit for each plot. Images were saved in the .jpg compressed image format at a resolution of 100 dpi

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was used to graft watermelon seedlings at the first true-leaf stage ( Davis et al., 2008 ). In the Fall 2015 greenhouse inoculation experiment, ‘Melody’ was sown into 128-cell Styrofoam flats (Speedling, Inc., Ruskin, FL) containing potting mix

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light rose-skin, orange-flesh cultivar that is gradually replacing BX; for several years, it has been the main commercial orange-flesh, fresh-market cultivar and check cultivar in yield trials. Virus-tested generation 1 storage roots were bedded in

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