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Touria E. Eaton, Douglas A. Cox, and Allen V. Barker

organic media, fertilizers, and pest management methods for greenhouse crops. Organic media are available in the market, and pest management practices using organic pesticides and biological control agents are being established. However, cultural

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Neng-Iong Chan, Bruce E. Rittmann, and James Elser

demand for fertilizers, particularly N and P ( Odegard and van der Voet, 2014 ). N fertilizer is primarily produced from the energy-intensive Haber-Bosch process, whereas P fertilizer is now almost exclusively produced by mining phosphate rock. Fertilizer

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S. Alan Walters

production systems is essential to maximize fruit yield. Hoyt et al. (1994) indicated that nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates must be adjusted for vegetables growing in NT compared with those recommended for CT. Moreover, Sanders (2006) indicated that an

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Laura A. Warner, Amanda D. Ali, and Anil Kumar Chaudhary

indicate that they perceived landscape benefits in all categories. Table 1. Statements used to measure perceived landscape benefit categories in a study examining the relationship between landscape benefits and best fertilizer and irrigation practices. In

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Vincent M. Russo and Merritt Taylor

whether production is with conventional or alternative methods, it is necessary that systems be developed that are applicable to specific regions. Synthetic fertilizers cannot be used in organic production. There are several materials derived from organic

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B.P. Melvin and J.M. Vargas Jr.

Organic and synthetic fertilizers were evaluated under three irrigation regimes (daily, twice weekly, and rain only) for management of necrotic ring spot (Leptosphaeria korrae Walker & Smith) of Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.). Disease severity varied due to fertilizer and irrigation treatments. After 2 years of treatments, daily irrigation reduced disease incidence as compared to twice-weekly irrigation, while organic fertilizer, as a feathermeal-bonemeal-soybeanmeal mixture, when applied monthly at 48.8 kg N/ha, reduced disease incidence as compared to urea fertilizer. For 2 of 3 years, differences in disease incidence were attributable to irrigation treatments, and after 4 years, all N fertilizers reduced disease incidence as compared to no fertilizer.

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Subhrajit K. Saha, Laurie E. Trenholm, and J. Bryan Unruh

Due to increasing consumption of water in landscapes and concern over conservation of water resources, this study was conducted to determine the effect of fertilizer source on water consumption of turf and ornamentals and to compare total water use (WU) of st. augustinegrass and ornamentals. The experiment was performed in a climate-controlled greenhouse at the G.C. Horn Turfgrass Field Laboratory at the University of Florida in Gainesville. `Floratam' st. augustinegrass (Stenotaphrum secundatum Walt. Kuntze) was compared to a mix of common Florida ornamentals including canna (Canna generalis L.H. Bailey), nandina (Nandina domestica Thunb.), ligustrum (Ligustrum japonicum Thunb.), and allamanda (Allamanda cathartica L.). All plants were grown in 300-L plastic pots in Arredondo fine sand. There were three fertilizer treatments [quick-release fertilizers (QRF) 16–4–8 and 15–0–15, and slow-release fertilizer (SRF) 8–4–12] applied at 4.9 g N/m2 every 60 days. Water was applied as needed to maintain turgor and turfgrass pots were mowed weekly. Experimental design was a randomized complete block design with four replications. Visual quality ratings and time domain reflectometry (TDR) data were collected weekly. Both turf and ornamentals consumed less water and had higher water use efficiency (WUE) when treated with SRF. Ornamentals consumed from 11% to 83% more water than turf, depending on season. These results may have implications in future research on irrigation management to verify WUE between turf and ornamentals in an urban landscape.

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R.L. Parish, R.P. Bracy, and H.F. Morris Jr.

A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of banding or broadcasting fertilizer on yield and quality of turnip (Brassica rapa L. Rapifera group), sweetcorn (Zea mays var. rugosa Bonaf.), and cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. Capitata group). Preplant fertilizer was applied broadcast before bedding, broadcast after bedding, or banded after bedding. Sidedress applications were broadcast or banded on the beds. Differences in plant size and vigor were noticed early in the season in the spring turnip crop, with the growth in the broadcast-and-bed treatment appearing superior. The yield at first harvest and total yield were lower for turnip grown with the bed-and-broadcast treatment. No differences in yield of cabbage or sweetcorn resulted from the treatments. Few differences in turnip stem-to-leaf ratio were noted due to fertilizer treatment. Few differences in yield due to sidedress method were noted with any of the crops. Analysis of soil samples in a grid pattern across the beds showed that the location of the fertilizer after the broadcast-and-bed treatment was similar to the placement of the banded fertilizer. Since broadcasting can be done with a faster, wider applicator, growers could reduce costs by broadcasting fertilizer and obtain yields that are at least equivalent to the yields obtained by banding the fertilizer.

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Zhenxu Liang, Mingde Sun, Yang Wu, Jun Liu, Yanyan Zhao, Haiqing Tian, Ruirui Du, and Songzhong Liu

( Ge et al., 2018 ). The benefit of fruit tree planting is directly related to yield, but it is difficult to popularize scientific and reasonable fertilizer application technology under the current small-scale fruit tree planting mode that farmers

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Fernanda Trientini and Paul R. Fisher

in ion concentration and pH over time require constant monitoring and adjustment ( Sonneveld and Voogt, 2009 ). Sophisticated real-time monitoring and control are unlikely to be feasible for small-scale home gardeners. Controlled-release fertilizers