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neutral with an isoelectric point of 6.73 ( Table 1 ). Fig. 1. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results of ferric chelate reductase genes of Citrus junos ( CjFRO s). CjFRO2 ( A ), 5′ terminal PCR products of CjFRO3 ( B ), and CjFRO4 ( C ), were

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-exudated phytosiderophores without being previously reduced ( Marschner and Römheld, 1994 ). However, the identification of common elements in both strategies has weakened the strict separation between them ( Schmidt, 2003 ). Iron deficiency induces ferric chelate

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Root ferric chelate reductase (FCR) activity in Annona glabra L. (pond apple), native to subtropical wetland habitats and Annona muricata L. (soursop), native to non-wetland tropical habitats, was determined under Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient conditions. Four-month-old seedlings of each species were grown hydroponically in a complete nutrient solution containing 90 μm Fe or no Fe. The degree of tolerance of Fe deficiency was evaluated by measuring root FCR activity, chlorophyll and Fe concentration in recently matured leaves and plant growth. Root FCR activity was higher in soursop than in pond apple in the nutrient solution with Fe. However, there were no differences in root FCR activity between species under Fe-deficient conditions. Root FCR activity in pond apple and soursop was not induced in the absence of Fe. Leaf chlorophyll index and Fe concentration, and dry weights of pond apple were lower when plants were grown without Fe compared to plants grown with Fe. Leaves of pond apple grown without Fe became chlorotic within 3 weeks. Lack of Fe decreased the chlorophyll index and Fe concentration in young leaves less in soursop than in pond apple. In contrast, the Fe level in the nutrient solution had no effect on dry weights of soursop. The rapid development of leaf chlorosis and low FCR activity of pond apple may be due to its native origin in wetland areas where there is sufficient soluble Fe for plant growth and development.

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range of pH values ( Alcañiz et al., 2004 ). However, as a result of the high cost, only cash crops are treated with these Fe chelates ( Chen and Barak, 1982 ). Although several researchers have investigated ferric chlorosis and ways to remediate Fe

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) supplied with photodegraded Fe-chelate-containing fertilizer solution, expressed root physiology or nutrition associated with Fe deficiency induced Strategy I Fe efficiency. These plants had enhanced root ferric reductase activity (marigold) and higher

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fertilizers such as ferric ethylenediaminediaminedi-o-hydroxyphenylacetic acid (Fe-EDDHA), ethylendiamine di [(2-hydroxy-4-methylphenylacetic) acid Fe-EDDHMA], and ferric ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (Fe-EDTA). A chelated fertilizer is a metal nutrient ion

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rhizosphere, exudation of reducing and chelating substances, and increase in ferric chelate reductase (FC-R) activity (reviewed in Schmidt, 1999 ), which reduces Fe 3+ and enables uptake via an Fe transporter ( Briat and Lobréaux, 1997 ). The FC-R increases

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., 1986 ; Marschner et al., 1986 ; Römheld and Marschner, 1983 ). In addition, roots can increase the activity of plasma membrane-bound ferric chelate reductase (FCR), which uses cytosolic NAD(P)H to cleave Fe(III)-chelates and reduce Fe 3+ to Fe 2

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Disodium manganous ethylenediamine tetraacetate (MnEDTA), applied to the soil with 113 and 227 g sodium ferric ethylenediamine di-(o-hydroxyphenylacetate) (FeEDDHA), increased the concentration of Mn and reduced the concentration of Fe in ‘July Elberta’ peach leaves (Prunus persica (L) Batsch). Both rates of the Fe chelate increased Fe and reduced Mn and K in the leaves when compared to non-treated ones. Both rates of the Fe chelate reduced Fe chlorosis and increased shoot growth and size and yield of fruit. Mangenase chelate with 113 g Fe chelate reduced N in the leaves and increased trunk growth. Manganese chelate with 227 g Fe chelate reduced P in leaves. The Zn content in leaves, size of fruit, leaf chlorosis, trunk and shoot growth were not affected by Mn chelate applied with Fe chelate.

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Sodium ferric ethylenediamine di-(o-hydroxyphenylacetate) containing 6% metallic Fe (FeEDDHA) and hydrogen ferric ethylene bis (a-amino-2-hydroxy-5-methylphenylacetate) containing 6% metallic Fe (157HFe) increased Fe and decreased Mn concentration in leaves of ‘Redhaven’ peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch). Both chelates reduced Fe chlorosis, depressed leaf N concentration, and increased fruit size. FeEDDHA at 227 g per tree increased fruit yield. The two chelates reduced the leaf Mn:Fe ratio. There was no discernible treatment effect on P, K, or Zn concentration in the peach leaves or on trunk and shoot growth.

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