at 150 and 300 µmol·m −2 ·s −1 for an overnight extended photoperiod and found that blue light produced leaf damage and stem elongation, whereas R light produced a large leaf weight ratio. Moreover, B, R, and orange lights resulted in a large leaf
Humberto Aguirre-Becerra, Juan Fernando García-Trejo, Cristina Vázquez-Hernández, Aurora Mariana Alvarado, Ana Angélica Feregrino-Pérez, Luis Miguel Contreras-Medina, and Ramón G. Guevara-Gonzalez
Geoffrey Weaver and Marc W. van Iersel
lights are off for the remainder of the allowed photoperiod, yet some supplemental light was already provided earlier in the day. Thus, excess supplemental light was provided, but the photoperiod was not extended beyond the natural daylength, as
Kellie J. Walters, Allison A. Hurt, and Roberto G. Lopez
and closing opaque black cloth over individual greenhouse benches. Each bench was randomly assigned to one of eight photoperiod treatments: 9-h SD or 9-h SD extended by 1 [10 h (1700–1800 hr )], 3 [12 h (1700–2000 hr )], 4 [13 h (1700–2100 hr )], 5
Kevin M. Folta and Kayla Shea Childers
research suggests that it is likely, and these exciting concepts are poised to be extended to other crop systems. It is imaginable that high-value specialty crops with photoperiod sensitivity, like herbs, could be manipulated to adopt an empirically
Vincent Martineau, Mark Lefsrud, Most Tahera Naznin, and Dean A. Kopsell
to install HPS lamps and use them to extend the photoperiod of the crops to increase yields ( McAvoy, 1984 ). However, this practice can be onerous for large installations, both in equipment and energy costs. Some other disadvantages of HPS lamps
Michael J. Roll and Steven E. Newman
The rooting efficiency of cuttings from three poinsettia cultivars were evaluated after regulating the photoperiod during the stock plant stage. `Freedom Red', `Monet', and `V-17 Angelika Marble' stock plants were exposed to an extended photoperiod and to natural day length during September 1995. `Freedom Red' cuttings rooted more quickly under an extended photoperiod compared to those under natural day length. Furthermore, root dry weight from these cuttings was greater than cuttings from stock plants grown under natural day length. `Monet' cuttings also rooted more quickly when the stock plants were under an extended photoperiod, and showed similar differences in root weight as `Freedom Red'. Cuttings from `V-17 Angelika Marble' were not influenced by photoperiod. Lighting stock plants to block flower initiation produces a higher quality cutting when propagation takes place after the critical day length for flowering has passed.
Calin O. Marian, Atilla Eris, Stephen L. Krebs, and Rajeev Arora
The influence of photoperiod and temperature on the seasonal (fall to winter) cold acclimation and accumulation of a 25 kDa dehydrin in Rhododendron `Chionoides' was studied by exposing two groups of plants each in the greenhouse or outdoors to either a natural photoperiod (or short days) or an extended photoperiod (or long days) regime. Results suggest that the shortening daylength alone is sufficient to trigger both the first stage of cold acclimation and concomitant 25 kDa dehydrin induction. Exposure of the plants to natural photoperiod and temperatures induced the greatest cold hardiness and 25 kDa accumulation, while exposure to extended photoperiods (long days) and warmer temperatures (in the greenhouse) failed to induce any significant freezing tolerance in leaves. Whereas short days trigger the cold acclimation process initially, low inductive temperatures can eventually replace the photoperiod stimulus. Seasonal accumulation of 25 kDa dehydrin, on the other hand, appears to be predominantly effected by short photoperiods. Data indicated that the leaf water content of outdoor plants maintained under natural photoperiod was lower than that of plants grown under extended photoperiod. This was also true for the greenhouse plants at the first (September) and the last (January) sampling. It is hypothesized that early 25 kDa dehydrin accumulation may be due to short-day-induced cellular dehydration. Accumulation of two other dehydrins of 26 kDa and 32 kDa molecular masses does not appear to be associated with short day (SD)-induced first stage of cold acclimation. Results show that their accumulation may be regulated by low, subfreezing temperatures and may be associated with the second and/or third stage of cold acclimation of `Chionoides' rhododendron leaves.
Erik S. Runkle, Royal D. Heins, Arthur C. Cameron, and William H. Carlson
Phlox paniculata Lyon ex Pursh `Eva Cullum' plants were grown under seven photoperiods following 0 or 15 weeks of 5 °C to determine the effects of photoperiod and cold treatment on flowering. Photoperiods were a 9-hour day extended with incandescent lamps to 10, 12, 13, 14, 16, or 24 hours; an additional treatment was a 9-hour day with a 4-hour night interruption (NI). Noncooled plants remained vegetative under photoperiods ≤13 hours; as the photoperiod increased from 14 to 24 hours, flowering percentage increased from 20 to 89. Flowering of noncooled plants took 73 to 93 days. Flowering percentage was 19, 50, or 100 when cooled plants were held under photoperiods of 10, 12, or ≥13 hours or NI, respectively. Time to flower in cooled plants progressively decreased from 114 to 64 days as the photoperiod increased from 10 to 24 hours. Reproductive cooled plants had at least three times more flowers, were at least 50% taller, were more vigorous, and developed seven or eight more nodes than did noncooled plants. Photoperiod had no effect on height of flowering plants.
Erik S. Runkle, Royal D. Heins, Arthur C. Cameron, and William H. Carlson
To determine the flowering requirements of Rudbeckia fulgida Ait. `Goldsturm', plants were grown under 9-hour photoperiods until maturity, then forced at 20 °C under one of seven photoperiods following 0 or 15 weeks of 5 °C. Photoperiods consisted of a 9-hour day that was extended with incandescent lamps to 10, 12, 13, 14, 16, or 24 hours; an additional treatment was a 9-hour day with a 4-hour night interruption (NI). Noncooled `Goldsturm' remained vegetative under photoperiods ≤13 hours, and essentially all plants flowered under photoperiods ≥14 hours or with a 4-hour NI. Flowering percentages for cooled plants were 6, 56, or ≥84 under 10-, 12-, or ≥13-hour daylengths and NI, respectively. Critical photoperiods were ≈14 or 13 hours for noncooled or cooled plants, respectively, and base photoperiods shifted from 13 to 14 hours before cold treatment to 10 to 12 hours following cold treatment. Within cold treatments, plants under photoperiods ≥14 hours or NI reached visible inflorescence and flowered at the same time and developed the same number of inflorescences. Fifteen weeks of cold hastened flowering by 25 to 30 days and reduced nodes developed before the first inflorescence by 28% to 37%. Cold treatment provided little or no improvement in other measured characteristics, such as flowering percentage and uniformity, flower number, plant height, and vigor.
Mark P. Kaczperski, Allan M. Armitage, and Pamela M. Lewis
Seed of Petunia × hybrida `Ultra White' were germinated in #406 plug trays at 2.5 C and at a light intensity of 100 μ mol s-1m-2 using a 24 or photoperiod. At germination, seedlings were grown under natural light conditions for 8 hrs (SD) or for 8 hrs with the photoperiod extended to 16 hrs (LD) using incandescent bulbs. At approximately the 6th leaf stage, seedlings were stored at 5 C in the dark or at 12 μ mol s-1m-2 and a 24 hr photoperiod for 0 to 21 days. After storage, plants were potted n 10 cm pots and grown to flowering in a greenhouse. Plants grown under SD to the 6th leaf stage with no cold treatment were shorter. flowered later and had more lateral branching than unstored LD plants. Storage at 5 C decreased time to flower of SD plants and increased branching of LD plants regardless of photoperiod during storage.