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Calla (Zantedeschia Spreng.) growers were studied as members of an expanding sector in the New Zealand floricultural industry. The calla sector is characterized by diverse-size firms scattered throughout the two main islands of New Zealand. Growers differ in their skill and experience with calla production. Problems are both grower-specific (e.g., control of diseases, postharvest disorders) and sector-wide. Examples of the latter include the prioritizing and funding research, interacting with science organizations and planning sector marketing strategy. Both sets of problems have been exacerbated by the progressive withdrawal of research and extension support services traditionally provided by government agencies. There is competition between the floriculture industry and calla sector-based grower organizations. The leadership role of a strong grower organization, in this case the New Zealand Calla Council (NZCC), is seen as an essential forum for growers, and as the link between growers, exporter organizations, scientists and central government. Good communications between the industry organization and growers is essential to identify and prioritizeproblems and to transfer information to individual growers through workshops, newsletters and manuals. To maintain its effectiveness, the NZCC does not satisfy the needs of smaller growers at the expense of the larger, influential growers. Rather, it seeks to the benefit the latter by upgrading the skill level of the industry, and by undertaking tasks too large for any individual business.

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México is an important producer of mangos for exportation. Losses occurring during postharvest due to poor handling practices, spoilage and injury during transportation reduces the quality of the fruit for shipment overseas. A hot water immersion treatment of 46C for 90 min and film wrapping of the fruit were studied to evaluate losses that occur during the sorting and packing of the fruit for market abroad. Cultivars of mangos included in the study were Tomy Atkins, Hayden, Kent, and Keitt. Fruits were selected from different points in the packing line before and after the hot water treatment and were stored at 10C and 20C for 30 days. Additionally, fruits were divided in subgroups and packed individually in low density polyethylene bags. Fruits were evaluated every 10 days for color, weight, firmness and injuries. Most severe losses occurred when the fruits were selected later in the packing line. Hot water treatment caused severe discoloration on the fruits. Film packing decreased weight loss, improved firmness, and retarded ripening and onset of spoilage.

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understand Turkey's competitiveness in citrus exports in the EU market in comparison with EU-15 countries. The goal is to develop a balanced overview of the citrus markets of Turkey and EU countries. Consequences for both Turkey and EU-15 countries are

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establishing the solo as the export standard, because it kept the cost of individual fruits, sold on a cost/lb basis, acceptable in mainland U.S. markets. Genetics of sex determination. With the adoption of gynodioecious solo lines as the preferred commercial

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. Five years later, market channels were diversified by exporting muskmelon to Europe. In response to signals from this new market, the company extended its product line by planting other varieties of its basic crops such as ‘Mickeylee’ watermelon, galia

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pear production systems have an important social impact in lower local market competitiveness compared with other commodities ( Rincón-Valdez et al., 2004 ). However, the exported volumes in the last decade have alleviated, in part, the low economic

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production practices, increased marketing incentives, and “green payments” for organic production by the EU ( Weibel, 2001 ). Argentina and Chile are increasing their exports of organic apples to U.S. and E.U. markets, with 2000 ha of organic apples and pears

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( Jimenez, 2004 ). After over 25 years of apple exports to Taiwan, live codling moth larvae were found for the first time in 2002, leading to a temporary ban on U.S. apples ( Fruit Growers News, 2002 ). To resume exports, the United States agreed to increase

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demanded by target markets is vital in increasing the consumption and export value of the crop ( Kimani et al., 2007 ). However, as a result of the new requirements relating to environmental sustainability of pesticides and the changing consumer

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three and a half decades. The pecan industry has focused its efforts on expanding export markets, with U.S. pecan exports growing by almost 2000% since 1980. The primary pecan export market, Hong Kong (a conduit to Asian markets), has experienced rapid

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