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, the lowest C and N content in bark was found in the european pear (C, 35.39%; N, 1.05%), and the highest in the european crab apple [ Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill.] (C, 42.56%; N, 2.19%). In wood, the lowest C/N ratio was determined for the european

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Cider apples ( Malus × domestica ) are an emerging crop in the United States, and cider apple orchard management generally follows the same guidelines as that for dessert apples ( Fitzgerald et al., 2013 ; Moulton et al., 2010 ). Pruning is

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, A.S. Asmussen, C.B. Coart, E. Olrik, D.C. Kjær, E.D. 2006 Hybridization and genetic variation in Danish populations of European crab apple ( Malus sylvestris ) Tree Genet. Genomes 2 86 97 Liebhard, R. Gianfranceschi, L. Koller, B. Ryder, C

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system in crab apple ( Malus micromalus ) using cotyledons as explants In Vitro Cell. Dev. Biol. Plant 50 1 8 Dare, A.P. Tomes, S. Jones, M. McGhie, T.K. Stevenson, D.E. Johnson, R.A. Greenwood, D.R. Hellens, R.P. 2013 Phenotypic changes associated with

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trees were in or near Sheridan, Big Horn, and Buffalo, WY ( Table 2 ; Fig. 1 ). ‘Whitney Crab’ originated from Franklin Grove, IL (pre-1865), which is 59 miles south of the Wisconsin border ( Bussey and Whealy, 2016 ). The apple is described as medium

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, 1992 ). Correspondence between phenotypic and genotypic indices of Danish populations of European crab apple ( M. sylvestris ) confirmed that relying exclusively on either morphological or molecular characters as diagnostic markers in studies of

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al., 2008 ; Moulton et al., 2010 ). Craft cider makers usually achieve their desired levels of bitterness and sharpness by blending in bittersweet, bittersharp, and crab apple cultivars, whereas industrial cider makers add exogenous malic acid and

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., 2006 ). Likewise, ‘Hongyi’ can be widely grown in Europe, wherever apples are grown, as well ( Laurens et al., 2018 ; Legave et al., 2013 , 2015 ). The planting location should be as far away as possible from any Juniperus sabina plants to avoid

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Drift’ crab apple ( Malus × ‘ Snowdrift ’) on Bud 9 rootstock (C & O Nursery) was planted in each row as a pollenizer between every 10 ‘Fuji’ trees, because this arrangement ensures sufficient pollination to the actual trees ( Westwood, 1993 ). Trees

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genetic variation in Danish populations of European crab apple ( Malus sylvestris ) Tree Genet. Genomes 2 86 97 Lassois, L. Denancé, C. Ravon, E. Guyader, A. Guisnel, R. Hibrand-Saint-Oyant, L. Poncet, C. Lasserre-Zuber, P. Feugey, L. Durel, C. 2016

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