(i.e., disease resistance). Sodium azide (NaN 3 ) and ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS) are popular chemical mutagens that are available for purchase and highly effective ( Arisha et al. 2014 ; Kumar et al. 2011 ; Savita et al. 2017 ; Yoosumran et
random point mutations at high density and can cause allelic mutations throughout the genome of any species ( Okagaki et al., 1991 ). EMS mutagenesis to generate resistance to potyviruses has been reported for Arabidopsis ( Duprat et al., 2002 ; Lellis
three groups for developing mutagenic lines of kalanchoe resistant to brown spot ( A ) and symptom comparison after 5 d of resistance detection with detached leaves ( B ), including the untreated (CK), ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS)-mutagenized, and crude
al. (1996) observed no greater tolerance in Capsicum annuum after imbibition before EMS treatment of seeds. Literature Cited Alcantara, T.P. Bosland, P.W. Smith, D.W. 1996 Ethylmethanesulfonate-induced seed mutagenesis of Capsicum annuum J. Hered
mutated genes were identified in the latter three cases using a bulked sequencing analysis.
The M2 generation of plants from ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS) mutagenized seeds of F. vesca H4F7-3 were screened for plants with mutations affecting runnering
Seeds of Antirrhinum majus (snapdragon), proprietary line OAK564, were treated with 0%, 0.10%, 0.25%, 0.5%, 0.75%, and 1.0% ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) for 8, 10, and 12 h at room temperature. The experiment was replicated three times over time. Data were collected on percent seed germination, seedling survivability, and pollen viability to determine optimal conditions for induced mutagenesis in OAK564 seeds. In the pilot experiment, M1 seeds treated with 1.0% EMS for 12 h had the lowest seed germination rate among all 18 treatments. Based on this pilot experiment, a large-scale mutagenesis experiment was performed using three levels of EMS (0.5%, 0.75%, and 1.0%) for 10-h exposure period. Mutants were induced on all these treatments, and morphological changes in the M1 population were detected. These included dwarfism, chlorophyll deficiency, and leaf morphology abnormality. This indicated that the EMS treatments were successful in inducing mutations, and mutants were further characterized for morphological traits.
concentrations and durations of ethylmethanesulfonate reduced seed germination, twinning, and plant size HortScience. 54 1902 1906 https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI14428-19
Wilde HD. 2014 Optimization of EMS mutagenesis on petunia for
%) was recorded at 0.5% v/v of EMS ( Table 1 ). Seeds showed that the reduction in germination might have been a result of the effect of mutagens on seed meristematic tissues. Table 1. Effects of ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS) treatments on the germination
, Y.J. Wang, S. Xuan, S.X. Chen, X.P. Li, X.F. Bonnema, G. Zhao, J.J. Shen, S.X. 2016 Microspore induced doubled haploids production from ethylmethanesulfonate (EMS) soaked flower buds is an efficient strategy for mutagenesis in chinese cabbage Front
regarding the date of publication.
This review was limited to random mutagenesis. CRISPR-CAS9 and other types of genetic engineering are not included because of their limited use in ornamental breeding. The current techniques used for ethyl