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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Tess Astatkie, Barry O'Brocki and Ekaterina Jeliazkova

) and has been explored as a food preservative and for decreasing aflatoxin B1 in maize grain ( Bluma and Etcheverry, 2008 ). Anise seed essential oil content and composition vary depending on the environment and the genotype ( Leela and Vipin, 2008

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Tess Astatkie, Thomas Horgan, Vicki Schlegel and Xavier Simonnet

, 1973 ). Like with other aromatic plants, A. annua essential oil content and composition is modified by genotype and the environment ( Tzenkova et al., 2010 ), by distillation method ( Scheffer, 1993 ), and by other factors. A recent report ( Ferreira

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Tess Astatkie, Santosh Shiwakoti, Shital Poudyal, Thomas Horgan, Natasha Kovatcheva and Anna Dobreva

distillation ( Topalov, 1962 ). Although there are numerous reports on garden sage essential oil composition, there is no agreement in the literature regarding the optimal steam DT for the extraction of the essential oil from garden sage biomass. We

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Tess Astatkie and Vicki Schlegel

factors, as reviewed recently by Figueiredo et al. (2008) . It has been demonstrated with some other essential oil species that the length of the DT may affect essential oil yield and composition, but not oil bioactivity ( Cannon et al., 2012

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Tess Astatkie and Vicki Schlegel

; Ondarza and Sánchez, 1990 ). Because the essential oil composition influences its biological activity ( Karakaya et al., 2011 ), the essential oil yield (content) is important with respect to the economics of production. Oregano essential oil yield and

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Tess Astatkie and Ekaterina Jeliazkova

( Adams, 1979 ), and duration of distillation time ( Zheljazkov et al., 2012a , 2012b ) can affect Rocky Mountain juniper essential oil composition. However, there are no reports on variations of Rocky Mountain juniper essential oil year-round, from

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov and Tess Astatkie

, 1991 ; Zheljazkov et al., 2010b ). We hypothesized that the length of the DT will have an effect on Japanese cornmint essential oil content and composition. Indeed, various authors used different DTs for extraction of Japanese cornmint, ranging from 60

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Bahlebi K. Eiasu, Ntombekhaya Matafeni, Viwe Dyafta and Kenias Chigwaya

through increasing the number of plants per area. Hence, the main objective of these experiments was to determine the effect of different PBZ concentrations on rose-scented geranium vegetative growth, and essential oil yield and composition. Materials and

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Valtcho D. Zheljazkov, Tess Astatkie and Ekaterina Jeliazkova

beneficial for the existing and future spearmint essential oil industry. There have been various studies aiming to improve essential oil yield and composition of spearmints. For example, previous studies demonstrated that some plant hormones such as MJ may

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Denys J. Charles and James E. Simon

Essential oils were extracted from leaves, flowers, and stems of Ocimum basilicurn, O. kilimandscharicum, and O. micranthum by solvent extraction, hydrodistillation, and steam distillation for essential oil content and the oil analyzed by GC and GC/MS for composition. While the yield of essential oil was consistently higher from steam distillation than hydrodistillation, a similar number of compounds was recovered from both hydrodistillation and steam distillation. Though the relative concentration of the major constituents was similar by both methods, the absolute amounts were higher with steam distillation. Essential oil content and composition varied by plant species and plant part. Essential oil content was highest in flowers for O. basilicum and in leaves for O. micranthum. No significant differences were observed in essential oil yield and relative concentration of major constituents using fresh or dry samples and using samples from 75 g to 10 g of dry plant tissue. While minor differences between hydrodistillation and steam distillation were observed, both methods resulted in high yields and good recovery of essential oil constituents. Hydrodistillation is a more-rapid and simpler technique than steam and permits the extraction of essential oil where steam is not accessible.