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Plant growth regulators (PGRs) are often used in crop production for specific niche market needs. PGRs are frequently viewed as secondary business opportunities by the private sector, especially when compared to herbicide, insecticide, and/or fungicide markets. Nonetheless, PGRs are regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and the additional cost of regulatory compliance as part of commercial development is significant. Of the two broad classes of pesticides regulated by the USEPA, conventional chemicals and biological pesticides (or biopesticides), many PGRs belong to the biopesticide class, specifically the biochemical category. Because of USEPA's responsibility to assure that any pesticide used in commerce will not result in unreasonable adverse effects to humans or the environment, specific data requirements have been established for product registration. Registrants must address each requirement, either by submitting relevant data or a request to waive the requirement, prior to receiving a federal registration. For biochemical PGRs, the acceptability of data or waiver requests, as well as any proposed label uses, are reviewed by the Biopesticides and Pollution Prevention Division (BPPD). The BPPD was formed in 1994 to facilitate the development of biopesticide products. Given the time and expense associated with PGR product development and commercialization, registrants should work closely with the USEPA and other stakeholders to help ensure successful product development.

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serious environmental problems. Nitrate contamination of groundwater has become widespread; it has been estimated that NO 3 -N loading to groundwater exceeds 100 kg·ha −1 ·yr −1 ( Rosenstock et al., 2014 ). Additionally, excessive extraction of

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Water resource development, particularly dam construction and inter basin diversions, can cause substantial environmental damage. Minimizing future damage can best be accomplished by using existing systems more efficiently, thus. reducing the need for supply augmentation: In the U.S., agriculture accounts for 83% of the annual total water consumption. The municipal and industrial sectors account for the remaining use. These shares are inversely related to economic value; agricultural water is worth between $30 and $75 per acre-foot in most applications while water in the municipal sector may be worth as much as $300 to $500 per acre-foot. The system inefficiencies implied by the sectors' use and relative economic values make it clear that water supply planning can be improved. If cost-effectiveness were the criterion against which water supply options and alternatives were assessed, system management and end–use efficiency would replace supply augmentation. Institutional, not technical, constraints prevent the adoption of the mote efficient options. Were these constraints relaxed, the monetary and environmental savings would be substantial.

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Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), ≈30% of food is wasted, which amounts to nearly 1.3 billion tons per year ( FAO, 2011 ). The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, 2009) estimates 96% of uneaten food (21.5 million lb annually) ends

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terrain facilitate extensive ground and surface water interactions [ Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), 2010d ]. These factors can combine to potentially deliver significant nutrient loads to lakes, streams, rivers, and estuaries

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evaluate saffron crocus as a new specialty crop for New England, to determine whether winter protection was beneficial for saffron crocus production in Rhode Island (USDA zone 6a), and to evaluate corm planting densities for a mesic, high

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beneficial ways that ecosystems affect people. Similarly, EnviroAtlas ( U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2016 ) provides interactive resources for exploring critical ecosystem goods and services, including human health and well-being. EnviroAtlas allows

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2002 by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection, the University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, the lawn care and pest control industries, Water Management Districts, environmental advocacy groups, and others as part

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conservation strategies is necessary to assure adequate future water supplies ( Utah Division of Water Resources, 2007 ). Providing communities with a reliable public water supply is a priority of federal and local governments ( U.S. Environmental Protection

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