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few sustainability certification programs that have been established by industry groups or companies to document their commitment to minimal environmental impact production practices. Veriflora [Emeryville, CA ( Veriflora, 2012 )] and Certified

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and environmental impact of different soil and pest management practices in strawberry production in the southeastern United States. First, three different strawberry production systems that are feasible for the region have been identified. The

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Long-term goals of reducing environmental impacts associated with agricultural activities must include economic sustainability as well as production feasibility. This study compared the potential economic and environmental impact of two specific cropping systems [wheat/soybeans (w/s) vs. selected vegetable crops with wheat/soybeans (veg/w/s)]. Profitability of w/s was lower than the veg/w/s system but demanded a smaller, less extensive resource base of labor and machinery with fewer conflicts in resource utilization rates. The PLANETOR computer program (Univ. of Minnesota) was used to analyze the potential negative environmental effects of growing a particular crop mix within these two systems. Although some of the vegetable crops exceeded the targeted soil loss tolerance value (T-value) of 3 t/ha, the weighted average of the veg/w/s system was below the target T-value for soil erosion. Analyses suggest that the profits from vegetables in the veg/w/s production more than offset the negative impacts on soil erosion and the veg/w/s system would be more economically feasible than w/s. Potential impact of pesticide leaching and runoff from vegetable production as calculated by PLANETOR was less than that from w/s. Specific cultural practices, including soil/tissue testing to manage nutrient applications, could reduce nitrogen/phosphorus movement. The veg/w/s system may offer the necessary profit margins to allow adoption of more environmentally friendly production alternative.

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The main objective of this study was to investigate the impact of an outdoor environmental program, Math and Science in the Outdoor Classroom, on elementary grade students' creative and critical thinking, and attitudes toward math and science. Math and Science in the Outdoor Classroom is an on-campus nature program in Santa Fe, N.M. Students participated in half-day programs focusing on topics such as water, insects, soil, and weather. Twenty-one teachers from five schools volunteered 175 second through sixth graders to participate in the program and research study. Surveys were administered to students, teachers, and volunteers after completion of the program. Interview data was analyzed using QSR NUD*IST (Nonnumerical Unstructured Data Indexing Searching and Theory-building) computer-assisted qualitative data analysis system to examine respondents' perceptions of the program using Bloom's taxonomy as a theoretical framework. Results indicated that students not only learned math and science at the lower levels of Bloom's taxonomy, but were also thinking at the higher levels of synthesis and evaluation within the framework.

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Six hundred homeowners, equally divided among rural, suburban, and urban areas in Minnesota responded to a 1999 phone survey on their lawn size, maintenance practices, and the perceived environmental impact of their lawns. The average lawn size was estimated to be 0.62 acres (0.25 ha), with an estimated 872,660 total acres (353,427 ha) in home lawns in Minnesota. Annual spending on lawn care per home was about $200, with an estimated $150 million spent annually in Minnesota. Participants reported low maintenance practices and pesticide use. A majority thought fertilizers and pesticides were harmful to the environment and public health. Respondents felt strongly that the government has a right to regulate fertilizers and pesticides in public park and lawn areas, but were divided with regard to the appropriateness of regulation on private property. Many (78.9%) disagreed or strongly disagreed with the statement that their lawn was harmful to the environment. Most (60%) felt their lawn could have an effect on the environment and 71% felt they personally could make a difference in the environment by how they maintained their lawn.

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The use of Sevin XLR Plus in chemical thinning applications at or shortly after petal fall in 1998 resulted in serious negative fruit quality effect, especially on `Red Delicious'. This negative fruit quality impact was worse in certain Henderson Co., N.C., orchards. Fruit diameter was reduced by 9%, fruit weight was reduced by 22%, misshapen fruit increased by 30%, eliminator fruit (<2.25″) increased by 102%, severely stunted fruit (<2.0″) increased by 317%. Surface russetting increased by 160% and seed numbers per fruit dropped by 27%. These are “never before seen” fruit quality problems for North Caronlina, which appear to be related to the unusual environmental conditions between full bloom and fruit thinning. Comparing the 30-year weather records, Apr. 1998 was the wettest April on record with twice the average rainfall. There were only two rain free days between bloom and petal fall, and only 9 of the 30 days following bloom were rain-free. Daily lows were at or above while daily highs were below the 30-year average, resulting in an extremely small daily temperature fluctuation. The departure from normal for average daily temperature was highly negative from partial petal fall until 2 weeks post petal fall. Daily relative humidity values for daily minimum, average and maximum were consistently and substantially above 30-year average values. It appears that these environmental extremes with Sevin XLR Plus use has an impact on fruit quality. In one `Golden Delicious' orchard where Sevin formulations could be compared side by side, fruit russetting jumped from 5.3% with 50 WP to 36.2% with the XLR Plus formulation.

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Two environmental education classes at Missouri Botanical Garden, “The Water Cycle: Making” a Terrarium” and “The Tropical Rainforest”, were evaluated to determine their effects upon attitude and knowledge change of elementary school children. A pretest-post-test design was used to compare experimental and control groups. Data indicated that The Water Cycle: Making a Terrarium class had a positive influence on attitudes toward learning about plants and the environment the Tropical Rainforest class had no effect. Neither of the classes significantly affected the children's attitudes toward interacting with the environment. Both classes increased the knowledge base of participating children. There were no differences between male and female attitudes or knowledge in either class. Nonformal learning experiences of this type may be a more effective means of stimulating horticultural interest among young children than traditional classroom settings.

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Research suggests that blackleaf (a leaf disorder in grape, Vitis labrusca L.) is induced by high levels of ultra violet (UV) radiation and overall light intensity, resulting in color changes (purple-brown-black) for sun-exposed leaves of the outer canopy, and a corresponding >50% reduction in photosynthesis. Metabolic indicators (photosynthesis and leaf water potential), percent blackleaf expression, and full spectrum leaf reflectance were mapped within vineyards using global positioning system (GPS) and digital remotely-sensed images. Each image and data record was stored as an attribute associated with a specific vine location within a geographical information system (GIS). Spatial maps were created from the GIS coverages to graphically present the progression of blackleaf across vineyards throughout the season. Analysis included summary statistics such as minimum, maximum, and variation of green reflectance, within a vineyard by image capture date. Additionally, geostatistics were used to model the degree of similarity between blackleaf values as a function of their spatial location. Remote-image analysis indicated a decrease in percent greenness of about 45% between July and August, which was related to a decrease in photosynthesis and an increase in blackleaf symptom expression within the canopy. Examination of full spectral leaf reflectance indicated differences at specific wavelengths for grape leaves exposed to UV or water-deficit stress. This work suggests that remote-image and leaf spectral reflectance analysis may be a strong tool for monitoring changes in metabolism associated with plant stress.

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Two environmental education classes at Missouri Botanical Garden, “The Water Cycle: Making a Terrarium” and “The Tropical Rainforest,” were evaluated to determine their effects upon attitude and knowledge change of elementary school children. A pre-test post-test design was used to compare experimental and control groups. Data indicated that The Water Cycle: Making a Terrarium class had a positive influence on attitudes toward learning about plants and the environment; The Tropical Rainforest class had no effect. Neither of the classes significantly affected the children's attitudes toward interacting with the environment. Both classes increased the knowledge base of participating children. There were no differences between male and female attitudes or knowledge in either class. Nonformal learning experiences of this type may be a more effective means of stimulating horticultural interest among younger children than traditional classroom settings. [Affiliation. The research was conducted at Southern Illinois Univ. in the Plant and Soil Science Dept.]

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