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Sebastain N. Awondo, Esendugue Greg Fonsah and Dennis J. Gray

muscadine grapes in Georgia in 2015. For the nonstochastic (traditional) enterprise budget, we assumed yields of 8 tons/acre for matured vines (year 4 and beyond) and a market price of $500/ton based on information provided by growers and 2012 production and

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V. A. Khan, C. Stevens and J. E. Brown

Early okra production was evaluated using `Clemson Spineless' transplants grown under clear polyethylene mulch plus VisPore row cover (VCM), black polyethylene mulch plus VisPore row cover (VBM), clear polyethylene mulch (CM), black polyethylene mulch (BM) and bare soil (BS) for two years. Early yield (1st four harvests in early June) was significantly greater for VCM treatment while total marketable yield at the end of 8 wks were significantly greater for VCM, BM, and VBM treatments, respectively in both years. Enterprise budget analysis showed that VCM and BM treatments had the highest net-return to management on a per acre basis.

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V. A. Khan, C. Stevens and J. E. Brown

Early okra production was evaluated using `Clemson Spineless' transplants grown under clear polyethylene mulch plus VisPore row cover (VCM), black polyethylene mulch plus VisPore row cover (VBM), clear polyethylene mulch (CM), black polyethylene mulch (BM) and bare soil (BS) for two years. Early yield (1st four harvests in early June) was significantly greater for VCM treatment while total marketable yield at the end of 8 wks were significantly greater for VCM, BM, and VBM treatments, respectively in both years. Enterprise budget analysis showed that VCM and BM treatments had the highest net-return to management on a per acre basis.

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S. B. Sterrett, D. B. Taylor, C. W. Coale Jr. and J. W. Mapp Jr.

An interdisciplinary approach had been developed to examine the production, economic, and marketing feasibility of new crops. The methodology requires the determination of yield potential and product quality, construction of production budgets, and completion of marketing window analyses. Potential for integration of new crops into the existing farm enterprise is assessed using linear programing techniques that consider labor and equipment constraints, crop rotations and best management practices. Risk analyses consider yield, production costs, and price of both new and traditional crops. By using this method, broccoli has been identified as a potential new crop for eastern Virginia, with labor requirements and slush ice availability being the major constraints to integration into vegetable production in this area.

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Harrison Hughes

The food crop concentration in the horticulture major was revised in response to discussions with students, faculty, and county agents to emphasis more service learning. A requirement for an internship or practicum was added. The practicum entails the design, maintenance, and data collection of the vegetable and small fruit display gardens. Emphasis will be on sustainable production and on collection of information for use in extension fact sheets for the citizens of Colorado. Other changes include the modularization of the commodity courses to provide greater flexibility and the addition of a capstone course. The capstone course will involve greater interaction with industry in the state and has a requirement for the development of both an enterprise budget as well as a production plan for a commercial operation.

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William B. Evans, Kenneth W. Hood, Keri L. Paridon and Peter M. Hudson

Yield, input, and economic data from research plots in central Mississippi are being used to test the economic potential of organic vegetable crop production. A six-part, multi-year rotation, including winter and summer cover crops, has been set up to generate yield, cost, and economic return data from vegetables produced in Mississippi using methods allowed by the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture National Organic Standards and accepted by local growers employing pesticide-free and other similar management methods. Data being collected include labor and input costs, yields, and market prices for harvested crops. Marketable produce is being sold through a grower-retailer at a farmer's market. During 2004, the first full year of the rotation, 10 vegetable species were included in the plots. Pest pressure has generally been minimal. With one exception [one of two potato (Solanum tuberosum) cultivars failed to produce a good stand], all crops planted have produced fair to excellent yields. Crops generating high retail prices in this study include potatoes, snap beans (Phaseolus vulgaris), and leaf lettuce (Lactuca sativa). In the future, the yield and price data being generated will be combined with new and existing cost data to create enterprise and production budgets for use by perspective and existing organic vegetable growers.

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Elio Jovicich, John J. VanSickle, Daniel J. Cantliffe and Peter J. Stoffella

The increase in U.S. demand for colored bell peppers (Capsicum annuum) has been satisfied with increased supplies from imports and increased domestic production. Greenhouse-grown peppers of red, orange, and yellow colors were imported during the period 1993–2002 at wholesale fruit market prices that were three to five times greater than field-grown fruits. With high market prices and a suitable environment for growing colored peppers under inexpensive greenhouse structures [<$40/m2 ($3.7/ft2)], up to 14 ha (34.6 acres) of greenhouses produced bell peppers in Florida in the year 2002. To estimate the profitability of a bell pepper greenhouse enterprise, a budget analysis was used to calculate the returns to capital and management. Production costs of greenhouse-grown peppers were estimated assuming the use of current technology applied in commercial greenhouse crops in Florida and in experimental crops at the University of Florida. Production assumptions included a crop of nonpruned plants grown in soilless media in a highroof polyethylene-covered greenhouse [0.78 ha (1.927 acres)] located in north-central Florida. For a fruit yield of 13 kg·m–2 (2.7 lb/ft2), the total cost of production was $41.09/m2 ($3.82/ft2), the estimated return was $17.89/m2 ($1.66/ft2), and the return over investment was 17.1%. A sensitivity analysis indicated that fruit yields should be greater than 7.8 kg·m–2 (1.60 lb/ft2) in order to generate positive returns based on a season average wholesale fruit price of $5.29/kg ($2.40/lb). For this price, a range of possible fruit yields [5–17 kg·m–2 (1.0–3.5 lb/ft2)] led to returns ranging from –$9.52 to 30.84/m2 (–$0.88 to 2.87/ft2), respectively. The estimates indicate that production of greenhouse-grown peppers could represent a viable vegetable production alternative for Florida growers.

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Elio Jovicich, John J. VanSickle, Daniel J. Cantliffe and Peter J. Stoffella

The uninterrupted supply of high quality colored peppers to the U.S. is mainly from imports of greenhouse-grown fruits. Average year-round wholesale market price of these imports was $4.80/kg when U.S. field-grown fruit price was $1.60/kg for colored and $0.91/kg for green. High market prices and a suitable environment for growing colored peppers in inexpensive protected structures led to construction of 25 ha of greenhouses currently growing peppers in Florida. Greater demand for specialty vegetable crops, loss of methyl bromide, and an increase in urban sprawl and price of arable land may result in growers considering greenhouses to produce high value peppers. We estimated the profitability of a greenhouse enterprise with a budget analysis and calculated the returns to capital and management. We assumed use of current technology applied in commercial greenhouse crops in Florida, and in experimental crops at the Univ. of Florida. Revenues per square meter were estimated from current yields and historical fruit price data. Plants were grown in perlite in a high-roof polyethylene-covered greenhouse (0.78 ha) located in north central Florida. Transplanting occurred in August and fruits were harvested from November to May for a yield of 13 kg·m-2 with a total cost of production of $41.09 and an estimated return of $17.89. The return on investment was 17%. Only yields greater than 7.8 kg·m-2 generated positive returns using the average wholesale fruit price during the season ($5.29/kg). For this price, a range of possible yields (5–17 kg·m-2) led to returns ranging from $–9.52 to $30.84, respectively. The estimates indicated that production of greenhouse-grown peppers could represent a viable production alternative for Florida vegetable growers.

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David Conner and Anusuya Rangarajan

management, and enterprise budgets for the farm focal crops that reflect the two seasons of production (2002 and 2003). The use of budgeting tools, including enterprise budgets, has been a staple of farm management education ( Kay and Edwards, 1999 ; Osburn

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Ian J. Warrington, Barrie D. Wallace and Sandy Scarrow

The government-funded horticulture extension service, which provided a free service to New Zealand growers for nearly 50 years, was privatized in the late 1980s as part of major reforms to the primary production sector. That service had provided one-on-one on-farm visits, budget advice, provision of technical information, and facilitation of field days, workshops and discussion groups throughout the country. This government-funded service also provided policy advice, acted as an interface between industry and the research and development (R&D) sector, and responded to biosecurity incursions. A decade following privatization, the number of people involved in equivalent consultancy activities has almost halved with very little recruitment of new people into the profession. The emphasis is now much more towards providing advice on the overall management of an individual enterprise to ensure its financial viability, with less emphasis on technical transfer. Large horticultural businesses are increasingly employing specialists in-house who can provide technical solutions and advice on balance sheet management. Private consultancy companies now tend to work more at a local or regional level rather than at a national level and links with R&D providers have markedly weakened as research organisations are increasingly protecting intellectual property for their own commercial advantages and as information provision is now largely on a user-pays basis. In addition, biosecurity incursions over the past decade appear to have increased as a result of a weakened surveillance effort. Nonetheless, horticultural exports from New Zealand continue to grow at around 10% per annum and many sectors remain very competitive on world markets.