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Yuyao Kong, Ajay Nemali, Cary Mitchell, and Krishna Nemali

., 2017 ). Leafy greens, such as lettuce, are among the group of popular crops for indoor farming ( Kozai, 2013 ). Crops are produced using electric lighting for an average of 16 h·d −1 ( Agrilyst, 2017 ) in indoor farms. Thus, electrical energy-use costs

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Lie Li, Yu-xin Tong, Jun-ling Lu, Yang-mei Li, and Qi-chang Yang

, to improve the energy use efficiency in PFALs, it is necessary to find the optimal light environment for plant growth ( Kozai et al., 2016 ). Therefore, to investigate the optimal combination of light wavelengths for lettuce ( Lactuca sativa cv

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Ricardo Hernández and Chieri Kubota

Light is one of the limiting factors for plant growth. To increase the PPF for plant growth, greenhouse growers must supplement solar light with electric-powered light. The most common lighting technology used to increase PPF in the greenhouse

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Zhengnan Yan, Dongxian He, Genhua Niu, Qing Zhou, and Yinghua Qu

, alone or with blue LEDs, red LEDs, or both ( Park and Runkle, 2018 ; Yan et al., 2019 ). The world’s first white LED was created in 1996 as a phosphor coating used by blue LED ( Bourget, 2008 ) and the present white LEDs showed increased energy

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Hyun-Gyun Yuk, Benjamin R. Warren, and Keith R. Schneider

alternative to using removable adhesive stickers with produce data is implanting the alphanumeric code directly on the produce surface. This can be accomplished using a newly designed laser etching device for labeling produce surfaces. The new device uses a

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Li-Hong Gao, Mei Qu, Hua-Zhong Ren, Xiao-Lei Sui, Qing-Yun Chen, and Zhen-Xian Zhang

greenhouse uses solar energy as the sole light and heat source for winter crop production ( Figs. 1C and 2, A and B ) and is unique to northern China. These greenhouses are used to produce warm season crops such as tomato ( Solanum lycopersicum ) and

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Jennifer K. Boldt

is high can help reduce energy use. However, the impact on plant development rate of altering the greenhouse temperature must be considered. Plant development rate in response to temperature is species specific, and it is linear between a base

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Matthew G. Blanchard and Erik S. Runkle

floriculture crops, a −DIF is sometimes used by greenhouse growers to control height ( Myster and Moe, 1995 ). In temperate climates, high-energy inputs can be required to maintain a desirable greenhouse temperature, making fuel for heating one of the largest

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Celina Gómez, Robert C. Morrow, C. Michael Bourget, Gioia D. Massa, and Cary A. Mitchell

photosynthetically active radiation ( PAR ). Furthermore, HPS lamps are ≈25% efficient, and the waste thermal energy can be used to increase ambient greenhouse and plant temperature. Brault et al. (1989) estimated that, in northern climates, the heat emitted from

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Kevin C. Power, Jay B. Fitzgerald, George E. Meyer, and Dennis D. Schulte

supported by Grant no. 87–505 from the Nebraska Energy Office and by the Agricultural Research Division of the Univ. of Nebraska. We thank Stacy Adams for his assistance. The use of product names does not imply endorsement by the authors. The cost of