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, activity level, when considering all activities, was the same for all three groups. When comparing energy expenditure for each of the activities in the CHAMPS questionnaire, gardening was the only activity that was significantly different among the groups

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measurements were used to calculate METs to determine the exercise intensity of gardening. One MET is a resting metabolic rate of 3.5 mL·kg −1 ·min −1 oxygen. Energy expenditure (EE) and percentage of Gardening HRmax were calculated using the following

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, energy, and money, such as robotic lawn mower and in-ground irrigation systems, also present opportunities for growth in the landscaping industry in years to come. However, similar to other industries, the US landscaping industry, consisting of service

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Weeds must be controlled to produce marketable crop yields, for human safety, and for aesthetic reasons. Physical methods of weed control are highly labor and/or energy intensive, and in many cases are more dangerous to crops and people than herbicides. They are not practical solutions to most weed problems in developed countries. To properly work with and apply herbicides, researchers, and applicators should have a knowledge base that includes information on weed taxonomy, anatomy, and biology; herbicide chemistry and modes of action; spray adjuvants and carriers; soil characteristics and environmental factors that affect herbicide performance; application equipment technology; the development of herbicide resistance; alleleopathy; and the biological control of weeds. Herbicide use, in terms of product used or expenditures, is greater by a wide margin than that of insecticides and fungicides combined. Also, about two thirds of all pesticides produced in, and exported from, the United States are herbicides. Finally, about 40% of all of the herbicides used in the world are used in the United States. Only 32% of the insecticides and 14% of the fungicides are used in the United States. On the average, the leading universities in the country have only three faculty teaching courses in weed science, and they teach only two undergraduate and three graduate courses each year. Few are in horticulture. By comparison, there are 15 faculty teaching 13 undergraduate and 19 graduate courses in the leading entomology programs in the country. Weed control is an essential element in the production and management of all horticultural crops. Who is going to provide the education and training in weed science for the researchers, horticulturists, and consultants of the future?

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The Agricultural Research, Extension, and Education Reform Act of 1998 (AREERA) represents a concerted effort on the part of federal legislative leaders to rethink the manner in which agricultural research and extension programming are undertaken within the land-grant university system of our nation. For the first time ever, land-grant schools are being mandated to increase their energies in support of “multi” activities; namely, multiinstitutional, multidisciplinary, multifunctional, and multistate activities. The intent is to bring about greater efficiencies in carrying out the research and extension missions of our land-grant entities.

In this presentation, the key provisions of AREERA are outlined. These elements include: 1) the commitment of 25% of Hatch formula funds in support of multidisciplinary research involving another agricultural experiment station, Agricultural Research Service, or college/university that collectively are seeking to solve problems that concern more than one state; 2) the expenditure of Smith-Lever formula funds for support of multistate extension activities equivalent to 25% of these formula funds, or twice the level of resources devoted to such activities using FY97 funds; and 3) a directing of 25% of Smith-Lever and Hatch funds received by an institution in FY2000 for integrated research and extension activities (or twice the level of effort committed to such efforts in FY97). It is further noted that while 1890 and 1994 institutions are required to engage in multidisciplinary, multistate, and integrated research and extension activities, they are not compelled to meet the 25% goal outlined in the AREERA legislation.

Aside from the resources that must be devoted to certain activities within the Agricultural Experiment Station and the Extension Service, AREERA makes quite clear the need to actively engage stakeholders in giving shape to the priority activities of these land-grant entities. Moreover, it notes the importance of documenting the impact of the institution's research and extension investments on the priority concerns of its stakeholders. Among the key questions that will be employed to evaluate the quality of an institution's efforts are the following: Did the program address a critical issue? Did it address the needs of underserved and underrepresented populations in the state(s)? Did the investments result in improved program effectiveness and/or efficiency? Indeed, AREERA changes the landscape for many of the South's land-grant institutions. However, if efforts undertaken to date are any indication, the leadership and faculty of the region's land-grant system will successfully respond to the challenges that AREERA poses for them.

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). Savings in irrigation water, labor, energy, and fertilizer expenditures are obvious potential benefits of soil moisture sensor systems. Other potential benefits of sensor systems are less obvious. Greater precision in maintaining soil moisture at desired

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Physical activity is any bodily movement produced by the contraction of skeletal muscle that results in energy expenditure and includes a broad range of daily activities such as housework and walking for transportation ( Caspersen et al., 1985

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capsinoids, or to the development of breeding lines or cultivars. Literature Cited Josse, A.R. Sherriffs, S.S. Holwerda, A.M. Andrews, R. Staples, A.W. Phillips, S.M. 2010 Effects of capsinoid ingestion on energy expenditure and lipid oxidation at rest and

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annual gardening supply expenditures, types of information used to improve gardening experience, and respondent attitudes. Results from this analysis provide insights regarding which practices are more (or less) likely to be used and which gardening

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Protection) maintained by each school district’s board of education and monitored by the Connecticut Department of Energy and Environmental Protection (DEEP) ( State of Connecticut, 2005 ). The grace period was extended to 1 July 2010 at which point all lawn

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