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Surveys taken in 1991 and 1992 in Virginia suggest that the enclave model of employment may be a more successful and long-term method of employing individuals with mental disabilities (IMDs) within Virginia college grounds departments. Individual, competitive placement of IMDs seems to be less successful, resulting in increased level of temporary and short-term employment. Additional research is needed to document the methods and benefits of employment used by other grounds departments, including colleges outside Virginia in the employment of IMDs.

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professional skills for career success. Poor understanding of employment needs coupled with learning objectives that do not adequately address professional skill development may produce graduates that are at a competitive disadvantage when seeking industry

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), annual employment, and workers’ earnings, skills, training, safety, and retention rates. This article is a spatially, temporally, and analytically expanded version of an earlier article which covered 87 growers located in the three northern Gulf of Mexico

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Horticulture crops are a multimillion dollar industry in Illinois, providing employment opportunities as well as strengthening many local economies. In February 1998, about 300 surveys were mailed to members of the Illinois Nurserymen's Association, including owners and operation managers of retail and wholesale nurseries, greenhouses and garden centers. Questions included the pool of available labor, the total number of persons employed, including full and part-time workers, starting and average salaries for employees, retention rates and training procedures. Questions were also asked regarding employees' education and experience level, average compensation for various levels of employment and demographics of the employee pool. A 48% response rate was achieved with 147 surveys returned and analyzed. Respondents reported an average of 70 employees including sales staff, office staff and seasonal employees. Those businesses responding employed an average of 2.5 managers with an approximate annual salary of $48,000, and an average of 15 laborers with an approximate annual salary of $21,000. Correlations provided insight into which areas of the industry hired persons with horticulture degrees and the types of experience most valued by the respondents.

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In 1991 and 1992, two surveys were developed and sent to 87 Virginia colleges and universities to ascertain the most effective method of employing individuals with mental disabilities within their grounds departments. There were 62 (71%) responses to the surveys. The surveys show that 21 (34%) colleges and universities have employed or currently employ individuals with mental disabilities within their grounds departments (total of 67 individuals). Currently, 11 (18%) college and university grounds departments employ 27 individuals with mental disabilities. Of these, four colleges and universities employ 20 (74%) as members of enclaves.

There were 25 individuals previously or currently employed as members of an enclave; 20 (80%) were still employed in 1992. There were 42 individuals previously or currently employed as individual employees by the grounds departments; 7 (16%) were still employed in 1992. Based on these surveys, the enclave model of employment appears to be the most successful for continued employment of individuals with mental disabilities within Virginia college and university grounds departments.

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Horticulture crops are a multi-million dollar industry in Illinois, providing employment opportunities as well as strengthening many local economies. To help establish a “green-goods” industry basis for Illinois, ≈300 surveys were mailed to members of the Illinois Nurserymen's Association, including owners and operation managers of retail and wholesale nurseries, greenhouses and garden centers. The focus of the questionnaire was on the horticultural products and services provided and the value of these sales and services to residents of Illinois. Questions were included regarding the pool of available labor, the total number of industry employees, including full and part-time employees, and the starting and average salaries for employees. A 25% response rate was achieved with 76 surveys returned and analyzed. Results examined fundamental predictors in gaining industry employment such as education and experience, employee demographics and average compensation for those employed at various levels. Provided that survey responses were indicative of the overall Illinois horticulture industry, responses provided evidence that the horticulture industry contributes approximately $67 million in salary and wages to the Illinois economy. While universities are reporting an increase in the number of female horticulture graduates, respondents indicated that 74.8% of their employees were male. Businesses reported an average of 28 employees including sales and office staff. However, very few businesses had hired people with disabilities or were aware of the services the state can provide to businesses hiring people with disabilities. Businesses employed an average of 2.5 managers with an approximate annual salary of $48,000, and an average of 15 laborers with an approximate annual salary of $21,000. Correlations provided insight into which areas of the industry hired persons with horticulture degrees and the types of experience most valued by the industry.

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. However, the industry has reached the mature stage of its life cycle and is now growing slowly or even declining in some segments ( Hall, 2010 ). According to the data from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages ( U.S. Department of Labor, 2015

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periods. However, the industry has reached the mature stage of its life cycle and has suffered as most businesses with the recession of 2008–09 ( Hall, 2010 ). Employment in the principal sectors of the U.S. green industry grew slowly or remained stable

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study for 2002, Florida's green industry had total employment impacts of 147,795 jobs, output impacts of $10.0 billion (B), and value-added impacts of $7.1 B ( Hall et al., 2006 ). These results represented significant increases in Florida since previous

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In 2007–08, direct employment in the green industry was estimated as 1.2 million, of which almost 22% was devoted to production-related tasks ( Hodges et al., 2011 ). As noted by Posadas (2012) , laborers in the green industry “perform varied

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