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The paclobutrazol liner dip is a plant growth regulator application technique that is becoming widespread in the commercial bedding plant industry. This technique, in which plug trays are dipped in a solution of paclobutrazol before transplant, is an efficient method for applying this growth regulator to a large number of plants. In previous studies, significant variability in size control was documented following liner dip treatments with identical solution concentrations. To elucidate the causes of this variability, three bedding plant species with varying levels of paclobutrazol sensitivity (Petunia ×hybrida, Impatiens wallerana, and Scaevola aemula) were treated with paclobutrazol liner dips under various conditions. Four factors identified in previous studies that may impact the efficacy of paclobutrazol liner dips were evaluated in this study. The age of the cuttings at the time of treatment ranged from 2 to 4 weeks after propagation. The light intensity incident to the plants from 2 h before through 2 h following the time of treatment ranged from about 1000 μmol·m-2·s-1 in a greenhouse to 5 μmol·m-2·s-1 indoors. The relative moisture content of the plug media before the treatment was saturated or at 25%, 50%, or 80% dry down by weight, based on air-dried media. The amount of time the plug media remained in the paclobutrazol solution was 10 s, 30 s, or 2 min. Data were collected on stem elongation 3 weeks after transplanting and again 2 weeks later. The results confirm that all four factors tested interact with the concentration of paclobutrazol in the dip solution to determine the control in stem elongation achieved by the treatment.

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Abstract

Factors affecting floral stalk elongation of tulips during the period from floral bud coloring (budded flower) to the senescence of the perianth were studied. All internodes elongated, however, the greatest elongation occurred in the internode directly beneath the flower and most of the elongation occurred in the upper two-thirds of the internode. Cut tulips elongated less than plants left in the forcing flats. Removal of the budded flower inhibited elongation of the last internode while removal of the leaves was stimulatory with some cultivars. With cut tulips, the perianth appeared to be the primary organ controlling floral stalk elongation followed by the gynoecium and androecium. When the flowers were left intact on the plant the gynoecium exerted the greatest control followed by the perianth and androecium. When the complete flower was removed and IAA or NAA was applied as a lanolin paste to replace the flower, the last internode elongated in a manner similar to the intact flower. Similar applications of kinetin and GA3 were ineffective.

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inflorescence elongation in the microbial fertilizer group. Transcription factors are important regulators of inflorescence elongation. Transcription factors that trigger major developmental decisions in plants are termed “master regulators.” Such master

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temperatures ( McKay, 1996 ) alone may be sufficient to severely damage or kill a transplanted tree. When these stressors are combined, the prospect of survival in the landscape is greatly reduced ( McKay, 1996 ). Individual stress factors affect the growth and

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). In general, the disease has become an important limiting factor of tree peony production and seriously affects the ornamental value of tree peonies both in the open air and in greenhouses. At present, the effect of using resistant varieties to control

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. Hydroponic systems also contribute to sustainable agriculture practices by providing environmentally friendly food by reducing the carbon footprint, and pesticide and water use, while increasing production. Irradiance is a critical environmental factor that

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[including ultraviolet (UV)-B], temperature, ambient ozone concentrations, and the availability of water and nutrients. These factors, alone or in combination, could lead to acclimation during long-term exposure to elevated CO 2 concentrations ( Poorter

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. The sequencing libraries were defined as follows: Library 1 (WT1) inflorescence germination stage of WT (Inflorescence length was 2–3 mm, 23 Dec. 2014); Sequencing Library 2 (WT2): inflorescence elongation of WT (Inflorescence length was 5–7 mm, 16 Jan

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followed by the onset of endodormancy of the bud that requires cooler temperatures to restore growth capability ( Fuchigami and Wisniewski, 1997 ; Wallerstein, 1981 ). The second year, terminal flowering is ensured by the elongation of all of the

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in comparing pathogenicity in strawberry, vegetative compatibility groups, and elongation factor 1α sequences. Foz_N39298 was included in molecular studies only as a comparator. Strawberry transplants were obtained from a certified nursery. These

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